2018救济金6元棋牌

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                      Essential Vermeer 3.0

                      The Complete Interactive Vermeer Catalogue

                      The Astronomer

                      (De astronoom)
                      1668
                      Oil on canvas
                      50 x 45 cm. (19 5/8 x 17 3/4 in.)
                      , Paris
                      inv. RF 1983–1928

                      The textual material contained in the Essential Vermeer Interactive Catalogue would fill a hefty-sized book, and is enhanced by more than 1,000 corollary images. In order to use the catalogue most advantageously:

                      1. Slowly scroll your mouse over the painting to a point of particular interest. Relative information and images will slide into the box located to the right of the painting. To hold and scroll the slide-in information, single click on area of interest. To release the slide-in information, single-click on the painting again and continue exploring.

                      2. To access Special Topics and Fact Sheet information and accessory images, single-click any list item. To release slide-in information, click on any list item and continue exploring.

                      The window

                      The Astronomer, Johannes Vermeer

                      Although the construction of the window of Vermeer's Astronomer appears identical to that of The Geographer, it presents part of a colored decorative stem (see$$$$$)2018救济金6元棋牌 lacking in the latter. Perhaps Vermeer included it only for its aesthetic appeal or perhaps it had a symbolic meaning for Vermeer or for the person who may have commissioned the pair of paintings.

                      2018救济金6元棋牌Far less light enters the astronomer's than the geographer's room because the second casement of the window is closed (between the open casement and the piece of furniture directly behind it). Thus, the incoming light is concentrated on the contemplative scholar and the celestial globe creating an air of mystery in keeping with the study of the heavens.

                      The painting on the background wall representing the Finding of Moses

                      The Astronomer, Johannes Vermeer

                      The choice of this particular picture-within-a-picture, which represents Moses in the bull rushes, was far from fortuitous. In the Acts of the Apostles, Moses was described "learned in all the wisdom of Egypt." Such wisdom would have no doubt included astronomy in which the Egyptians excelled. Moses was also considered the "oldest geographer" for his leading the Hebrews during their exile. He was also the patron saint of a type of science that did not seek knowledge through observation and experiment like modern science but in the return to old sources of wisdom in the ancient civilizations.

                      Moses also had a unique significance for the Dutch in as much as they considered the United Provinces a kind of new Israel, the Promised Land. Thus, with the inclusion of the Moses painting, Vermeer's Astronomer represents two different types of 17th-century science, the modern beside the ancient.

                      Curiously, the same painting appears as a prop in Vermeer's late Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid. In this pciture the Moses is represented dramatically larger than in The Astronomer (see$$$$$) and, at least according to art historians, conveys a very different iconographical nuance.

                      The technical chart

                      The Astronomer, Johannes Vermeer

                      Little is known about this curious technical chart, although it has been suggested that the three circular forms indicate some sort of stereoscopic projection. Other historians believe it is a planisphere, a star chart in form of two adjustable disks rotating on a common pivot, used to display the visible stars for any time and date.

                      The books on the cupboard

                      Unfortunately, we do not know the topics or titles of any of the twenty-five books "of all kinds" cited in the inventory of movable goods of Vermeer's estate. In any case, since books were still expensive, the number is considerable for a family of medium economic means.

                      Dutch art expert Walter Liedtke believes that "the illusions made in several of his pictures suggest that he was not unread, at least in fields directly related to the matters at hand. And Vermeer probably had a few well-schooled acquaintances, in particular Huygens (who corresponded with Descartes and Mersenne). But there seems no reason to rank Vermeer with learned artists like Rubens or Poussin; he probably had some second-hand notions of science and philosophy, but they appear to have had little bearing on his style. The very qualities that comprise Vermeer's so-called classicism—a term which has nothing to do with other aspects of his work—had been favored in Delft and The Hague for decades: perspective. proportion, restrained action, and expression, a sense of order, and in some cases measure and harmony."

                      The open book on the table

                      The Astronomer, Johannes Vermeer

                      Even though the printed matter of the open book has been rendered with a few dabs of deftly applied paint, they are so accurately positioned that historian James A.Welu was able to identify the volume as the 1621 second edition of a work by Adriaan Metius, Institutiones Astronomicae et Geographicae (see$$$$$)2018救济金6元棋牌. It is opened to Book III, where "inspiration from God" is recommended for astronomical research along with knowledge of geometry and the aid of mechanical instruments.

                      The right-hand page is filled with text and the left-hand one illustrates a so-called cartwheel astrolabe which Metius himself invented for calculating the position of the sun and stars. Metius' book was intended as a practical guide for studying astronomy and geography, which were more closely related in the 17th century than they are today. The book was recommended for "shippers and pilots" and included "short and clear instructions for the art of navigation." Metius had studied with the great Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe.

                      The celestial globe

                      The Astronomer, Johannes Vermeer

                      Although the author of the opened astronomical manual on the table recommended the use of the globes of Willem Janz. Blaeu, Vermeer painted one made by Blaeu's principal competitor Jodocus Hondius. Hondius' globe presents the complex forms of the constellations, some of which can be made out in the artist's exquisite rendering.

                      On the upper half to the left is the Great Bear, in the center, the Dragon and Hercules and to the right, Lyra. Three known copies of this celestial globe are preserved in the following collections; the Huntington Library, San Marino; Giannini Library, Lucca and the Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam. Celestial globes were usually sold in pairs with a terrestrial globe. Vermeer depicted the same globe in The Geographer and the late Allegory of Faith.

                      The Astronomer, Johannes Vermeer

                      Globes of this period were always produced and sold in pairs, a practice which demonstrates the close relationship between astronomy and geography at the time.

                      The astrolabe

                      astrolabe

                      2018救济金6元棋牌Astrolabe made by Jean Fusoris, Paris (1400)

                      The maker of the astrolabe, which is up propped up obliquely against the globe, has been recently identified by Koenraad Van Cleempoel as Willem Jansz. Blaeu, the author of the map in Vermeer's Geographer.

                      The astrolabe is an historical astronomical instrument and analog computer used by classical astronomers and astrologers. Its many uses included locating, and predicting the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets and stars; determining local time given local longitude, and vice-versa; surveying and triangulation. The identification was done after a series of detailed engravings of astrolabes by Blaeu, which are dedicated to Metius and published in Metius' book Astrolabium of 1632.

                      No one knows for certain who invented the astrolabe, but it was the chief navigational instrument until the invention of the sextant in the 18th century. Some historians credit the invention of the astrolabe to Hipparchus (2nd century B.C.), and some to Hypatia of Alexandria. Astrolabes were not only fundamental to the Dutch for practical reasons such as maritime navigation, but could be found in "cabinets of curiosities" of the moneyed elite.

                      In Vermeer's Astronomer, the astrolabe may suggest man's need to chart his course in life through careful and rational application of logic and measurement.

                      Who posed for the scientist?

                      The Astronomer, Johannes Vermeer

                      None of the models who posed for Vermeer's interiors have ever been identified even though many scholars have supposed that the majority were members of his own family, especially his wife and eldest daughters.

                      Specialists have always entertained the idea that the same man, with straight nose and full lips, posed for both The Astronomer and The Geographer (details left). He also bears a certain resemblance with the standing suitor in The Music Lesson. It seems out of the question that Vermeer himself posed for The Astronomer even though a now-lost self portrait is documented in a 1696 auction.

                      The most likely candidate for the sceintist, although far from certain, was Antonie van Leeuwenhoek the famous Dutch scientist who lived a few blocks from Vermeer in Delft. Van Leeuwenhoek has been linked to Vermeer on two accounts. The Delft scientist was an expert lens maker and could have conceivably helped Vermeer with the lens and optical science necessary to build a camera obscura. Moreover, among the few documents that reveal Vermeer's life is a note from the Delft public records which states that the aldermen of the city designate Van Leeuwenhoek as the receiver in the bankruptcy case of Catharina Bolnes, Vermeer's widow. It is dated September 30, 1676, a year after the artist's death. Ironically, both men's names appear on another page in the Delft ledger: the one recording their baptisms in 1632.

                      The scientist's robe

                      The Reading Lesson, Cornelis de Man

                      The Reading Lesson (detail)
                      Cornelis de Man
                      1653
                      Oil on canvas, 74.3 x 65.7 cm.
                      Hoogsteder & Hoogsteder, The Hague

                      The astronomer wears a so-called Japonsche rok, a highly desired garment, a kimono tailored into a kind of house robe. It was especially worn by scholars in their studios and appear in a great many paintings of artists, doctors, geographers and astronomers. Initially such keizersrokken, or Imperial kimonos, were gifts given in batches of thirty and sometimes even more to Dutch merchants who passed the test of their annual visit to the Imperial court in Edo (Tokyo). This visit was their only permitted sojourn on the Japanese mainland; at all other times they were confined to Deshima, the island assigned to them for the duration of their stay in Japan. Thus, these robes were originally intended neither as merchandise in Japan nor for sale back home in Holland.

                      By the mid-17th century roks were made from imported Indian and Chinese silk and became a more common imitation ware. In Vermeer's day, then, for his astronomer to wear a roks is to wear a garment which had not yet been commodified.

                      The floral-motif tapestry on the table

                       A detail from a tapestry from the workshop of François Spierincx Spiering

                      A detail from a tapestry from the
                      workshop of François Spierincx Spiering

                      Rather than a Turkish carpet, the luxurious floral motif of this fabric resembles that of a similar prop—most likely a hand-woven tapestry—that seems to appears in The Geographer (The Astronomer's presumed pendant), The Love Letter, the Allegory of Faith and, perhaps, The Lacemaker.

                      In the present picture it lenifies the geometric layout of the composition, eliminates the unnecessary empty space below the table top, and, perhaps, alludes to the scientist's inner pondering.

                      As of yet, historians have been able to identify the origins of any of the tapestries that appear in Vermeer's interiors, although most likely they were woven in one of Delft's thriving tapestry businesses.

                      Delft's flourishing tapestry industry was established by a wave of skilled artisans who had fled from religious wars to the south. In 1592, the municipality of Delft allowed the François Spierincx Spiering, a Flemish weaver, to set up his workshop on the premises of St Agnes Convent in Delft free of charge. Spiering became one of the most famous weavers in Europe and collaborated with the painters Cornelisz. Vroom and Karel van Mander. His son, Pieter Spiering, evidently inherited his father's love of art. He built up an important art collection and sponsored one of the most successful painters in the Netherlands, Gerrit Dou. Speiring was also the son of the great aunt of Pieter Van Ruijven, Vermeer's patron. Although there exists no supportive evidence in regards, one could easily imagine that the interests of Vermeer, Van Ruijven and Spiering would have intersected at some point. Perhaps, Spiering took an interest in Vermeer's work, and even furnished him with props from his family's tapestry industry.

                      Negative shapes

                      The different patches of background walls of Vermeer's paintings are often sensed not merely as empty, leftover space, but active compositonal elements in their own right, which in visual artists' jargon are termed vnegative space," Art historians use the term negative space as the space that surrounds the object, while positive space to refer to the subject—the flower vase in a painting or the structure of a sculpture. In Gestalt psychology positive space is associated with the "figure" while the negative shape with the "ground." The Japanese word "ma" is sometimes used for this concept, for example in garden design. To become active compositonal elements negative spaces must become an interesting or artistically relevant shapes. Although there is no discussion of the concept of negative space in period literature, most critics agree that Vermeer was keenly aware of its power. The deliberate manipulation of negative space in The Astronomer is as evident as it is functional to the painting's mood of intense intellectual introspection.

                      Vermeer frequently used negative spaces of his walls to create so-called "false attachments," an optical phenomenon whereby one part of a foreground object is juxtaposed near a second object in such a manner that the lines, shapes or tones of the separate objects seem to join up with the result that they appear to occupy the same plane, thereby creating spatial ambiguity. In The Astronomer there are various examples of false attachments, one of the most evident being the point where the lower corner of the picture-within-a picture and the profile of the figure's robe almost touch, separating and defining the the negative shapes of the empty wall behind them as active participants that intensify the dialog between the painting's narrative and aesthetic content.

                      Since birth our eyes are trained to seek out positive shapes—negative space is biologically meaningless and hopelessly transient—the artist must force themselves not only to look the shapes of objects but the space that surrounds them.

                      The signature

                      The Astronomer, signature

                      Signed on cabinet: IVMeer / MDCLXVIII [IVM in monogram]

                      (Click here to access a complete study of Vermeer's signatures.)

                      Dates

                      1668
                      Albert Blankert, Vermeer: 1632–1675, 1975

                      1668
                      Arthur K. Wheelock Jr., Vermeer: The Complete Works2018救济金6元棋牌, New York, 1997

                      c. 1668
                      Walter Liedtk, Vermeer: The Complete Paintings, New York, 2008

                      1668
                      Wayne Franits, Vermeer, 2015

                      (Click here to access a complete study of the dates of Vermeer's paintings).

                      The painting in its frame

                      (Click here to access all of Vermeer's paintings in their frames).

                      Johannes Vermeer's Astronomer with frame

                      Exhibitions

                      • (?) Adriaen Paets I, Rotterdam (?1669-d.1686);
                      • (?) his son, Adriaen Paets II, Rotterdam (1686-d.1712);
                      • sale (Paets et al.?), Rotterdam, 27 April, 1713, no. 10 or 11, sold together with The Geographer;
                      • Hendrick Sorgh, Amsterdam (?1713-d.1720);
                      • Sorgh sale, Amsterdam, 28 March, 1720, no. 3 or 4, sold together with The Geographer;
                      • Govert Looten, Amsterdam (before d.1727);
                      • Looten sale, Amsterdam, 31 March, 1729, no. 6, sold together with pendant of the same no. Jacob Crammer Simonsz, Amsterdam (by d.1778);
                      • Crammer Simonsz sale, Amsterdam, 25 November, 1778, no. 18, sold together with The Geographer as pendant (to De Vries);
                      • Jean Etienne Fizeaux, Amsterdam (1778-d.1780);
                      • his widow, Amsterdam (1780-?1785);
                      • [Pieter Fouquet, Amsterdam, and Alexandre Joseph Paillet, Paris, 1784–1785];
                      • Jan Danser Nijman, Amsterdam (?before 1794-d.1796);
                      • Danser Nijman sale, Amsterdam, 16 August, 1797, no. 167, sold separately (to Gildemeester);
                      • Jan Gildemeester, Amsterdam (1797-d.1799);
                      • Gildemeester sale, Amsterdam, 11 June, 1800, no. 139 (to La Bouchère);
                      • Michael Bryan sale, ?London, 9 May, 1804, no. 145a;
                      • John Gibbons, near Birmingham (by 1820–1828 or later);
                      • sale, place unknown, 7 October, 1820, no. 31 (bought in);
                      • his brother?, William Gibbons, sale, London, 18 June, 1857, no. 52, as A Philosopher (to [Henry?] Tate);
                      • Léopold Double, sale, Paris, 30 May, 1881, no. 17 (to Gauchez);
                      • [Léon Gauchez, Paris; sold to Rothschild between 1881 and 1888];
                      • Alphonse de Rothschild, Paris (until d.1905);
                      • his son, Edouard de Rothschild, Paris (1905-d.1949);
                      • (between November 1940 and 1945 confiscated for Hitler's intended museum in Linz);
                      • his son, Guy de Rothschild (1949–1982);
                      • acquired in 1983 by the Musée du Louvre, Paris (inv. RF 1983–1928).

                      Exhibitions

                      • Paris September 24–November 28, 1966
                        Dans la lumière de Vermeer
                        Musée de l'Orangerie
                        no. X and ill.
                      • Frankfurt 1997
                        Johannes Vermeer: der Geograph und der Astronom nach 200 Jahren wieder vereint
                        Städelschen Kunstinstitut
                        no. 2
                      • Atlanta October 12, 2008–September 6, 2009
                        The Louvre and the Masterpiece
                        The High Museum of Art
                      • Minneapolis (MN) October 18, 2009–January 19, 2010
                        The Louvre and the Masterpiece
                        Institute of Arts
                      • Budapest 31 October, 2014–15 February, 2015
                        Rembrandt and the Dutch Golden Age
                        Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budhapest
                      • Tokyo February 21–June 1, 2015
                        Louvre Museum: Genre Paintings: Scenes from Daily Life
                        National Art Center
                      • Boston October 11, 2015–January 18, 2016
                        Class Distinctions: Dutch Painting in the Age of Rembrandt and Vermeer
                        Museum of Fine Arts
                      • Paris February 22–May 22, 2017
                        Vermeer and the Masters of Genre Painting: Inspiration and Rivalry
                        Musée du Louvre
                      • Dublin June 17–September 17, 2017
                        Vermeer and the Masters of Genre Painting: Inspiration and Rivalry
                        National Gallery of Ireland
                      • Washington D.C. October 22, 2017–January 21, 2018
                        Vermeer and the Masters of Genre Painting: Inspiration and Rivalry
                        National Gallery of Art

                      (Click here to access a complete, sortable list of the exhibitions of Vermeer's paintings).

                      The painting in scale

                      (Click here to access all of Vermeer's paintings in scale).

                      Johannes Vermeer's Astronomer in scale

                      Science, philosophy or astrology?

                      An engraving of an astrologis

                      An engraving of an astrologist from:
                      Spiegel van het menselijk bedrijf
                      Amsterdam, 1695
                      Museum Meermanno-Westreenianum

                      Vermeer's Astronomer2018救济金6元棋牌 should not be understood as a portrayal of modern science, a painterly expression of the Copernican revolution in astronomy. In Vermeer's time, all natural phenomena, including the heavens, had an inexorable moral significance which implied the Divine Creator who had created nothing without a reason. Thus, everything in God's creation held a moral lesson or admonition.

                      2018救济金6元棋牌Historian Klaas van Berkel has demonstrated that the present work represents a combination of ancient wisdom (see the painting of Moses on the wall to the right) and modern science, represented by the various scientific instruments on the table. It should be remembered that the idea of science as a coherent enterprise as we know it today was just emerging. Science had to compete with deep-rooted philosophical and religious truths.

                      2018救济金6元棋牌 In the past, some scholars have doubted the activity of the painting's figure citing the evident lack of a telescope and the fact that the figure is working within a closed environment during the daytime. Perhaps, they surmised, he was devoting himself to the older, non-empirical science of astrology, in other words, he was drawing up a horoscope or in some way attempting to divine the order of the natural world through the movements of the celestial bodies. In those times there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology, while there was a strong division between astronomy/astrology and physics. Famed astronomers such as Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe, who were dedicated empiricists, were still practicing astrologists. Kepler believed in astrology and was convinced that planetary configurations physically really affected humans as well as the weather on earth. He advocated that a definite relationship between heavenly phenomena and earthly events could be established.

                      Astronomy in the 17th century

                      Portrait of Tycho Brahe, Eduard Ender

                      Portrait of Tycho Brahe
                      Eduard Ender

                      The wealth of Dutch 17th-century paintings that represent astronomers and astrologers reveals the interest in the study of the universe and its effect on mankind. The Astronomer was painted while Louis XIV was building an observatory in Paris (1667–1672). In 1668, the young Isaac Newton improved the design of the reflecting telescope which James Gregory had developed in 1663. A decade earlier, Christian Huygens had discovered the Saturn's sixth satellite. But astronomy was also of great practical importance to navigation, which was the lifeline of the Dutch economy: maritime trade. However, even as the nature of science was undergoing a radical change, teachings of the conservative humanists such as Sebastian Brant continued to be expounded. They taught that it would be presumptuous and improper in respects to the divine scheme of things to attempt to discover the nature of the stars and the history, size and composition of the earth. They imposed a ban on curiositas2018救济金6元棋牌, scientific inquiry and on any science based on experience and empirical research.

                      An extraordinary composition

                      The Astronomer (diagram), Johannes Vermeer

                      In order to imbue a sense of order and permanence to his images of momentary events, Vermeer carefully bound together the pictorial elements of his compositions. In The Astronomer, two distinct realities of the work are brought into relation, its perspective construction (which creates illusion of depth) and the painting's rectangular flatness, the so-called picture plane. In the diagram to the right, we can see that the geometrical center of the painting (indicated by the point where the two yellow diagonals cross) and the vanishing point (indicated by the point where all the light gray perspective orthogonals meet), fall precisely on the same point. Lest we think that this coincidence is fortuitous (statistically highly improbable) the same construction was emplyed in one of Vermeer's earlier works, the Woman Holding a Balance.

                      Is the signature authentic?

                      Detail of Johannes Vermeer's Astronomer

                      Technical evidence published in 1997 has dispelled the long-held doubt that the signature and date on the cupboard were a later addition by another hand. Thus, The Astronomer2018救济金6元棋牌 is one of the very few canvases signed and dated by Vermeer.

                      Authentic date & signature?

                      2018救济金6元棋牌Vermeer is popularly known as a painter of women. Male figures usually play a supportive role such as a suitors, musicians or musical instructors.

                      Although it would seem that only two paintings, The Astronomer and The Geographer2018救济金6元棋牌, feature men as the exclusive figure, we must add two other paintings which have been lost. The 1696 Amsterdam auction catalogue (the Dissius sale in which 21 paintings by Vermeer were sold) reports a "In which a gentleman is washing his hands in a see-through room with sculptures, artful and rare, by ditto (Vermeer)" and "The portrait of Vermeer in a room with various accessories, uncommonly beautiful painted by him."

                      Men in Vermeer's painting

                      Geographers at Work, Cornelis de Man

                      Geographers at Work
                      Cornelis de Man
                      c. 1670
                      81 x 68 cm.
                      Kunsthalle, Hamburg

                      2018救济金6元棋牌The importance that women played in the Dutch household is clearly indicated by their frequency in interior paintings. The unassuming household reflects concepts that were important to Dutch culture such as family, privacy, intimacy and comfort.

                      Dutch paintings which focus exclusively on a male figure usually exhibit them in their professional capacity such as doctors, scientists or painters. Gerrit Dou, one of the most highly paid Dutch painters, represented an astronomer plotting the course of the stars on a celestial globe, a personification of the pursuit of knowledge. Cornelis de Man, who lived in Delft, painted several pictures of scholars in their studio (see$$$$$)2018救济金6元棋牌 most likely in response to Vermeer's works.

                      Contemporary inspiration

                      Johannes Vermeer's Geographer and Asronomer

                      Since their reemergence, The Astronomer and The Geographer have been considered as a pendant: that is, two paintings created explicitly to be hung side by side. Some specialists have noted inconsistencies which disqualify them as such.

                      Vermeer expert Walter Liedtke concluded that the two are, beyond a shadow of a doubt, pendants. Technical evidence shows that the signatures and dates, analogous in both works, are original, contrary to former analysis. The two figures in Vermeer's pendants are linked by the contemplative, rather than active, pursuit in their respective disciplines. Furthermore, both works are of the same dimension. Liedtke believes that The Geographer2018救济金6元棋牌, dated one year later, was clearly meant to be hung on the left. Recently, two scientists, C. Richard Johnson Jr. and W. A. Sethares, have demonstrated that the canvas of the two pictures originate from a single bolt, a fact which greatly reinforces Liedtke's position.

                      The Dutch telescope

                      Early depiction of a Dutch telescope

                      Early depiction of a "Dutch telescope" from the
                      "Emblemata of zinne-werck" (Middelburg, 1624) of
                      the poet and statesman Johan de Brune (1588–1658).
                      The print was engraved by Adriaen van de Venne, who,
                      together with his brother Jan Pieters van de Venne
                      printed books not far from the original optical
                      workshop of Hans Lipperhey.

                      Vermeer lived in an age and nation where "pure" scientific investigation went hand-in-hand with the invention and perfection of scientific instrumentation. The Netherlands was for all practical purposes, a country constantly "under construction."

                      2018救济金6元棋牌Cartography was employed for planning battles during the long, brutal war of independence fought against Spain while engineers provided the necessary mathematical knowledge for the construction of fortifications and assistance in sieges. In times of peace, cartography became indispensable for mapping shipping routes. Mathematics was required to develop efficient land reclamation schemes and defense systems against the sea which was a constant threat to a nation largely underneath the level of the sea.

                      Painters too, were not averse to utilizing scientific apparatus to understand and replicate complicated optical phenomena they wished to represent on their canvases. Vermeer almost certainly used the camera obscura at some stage in the painting process and at least once, a compass to draw the circular perimeter of a ceramic jug in his early Procuress.

                      In The Astronomer2018救济金6元棋牌, Vermeer displays various objects associated with scientific investigation: the celestial globe, a scientific chart and a manual for astronomers by Adriaan Metius, which lies open on the table, as well as an astrolabe. However, he did not intend to portray a real life astronomer. No telescope, a standard piece of equipment for the average astronomer, can be seen. Furthermore, while not obsolete, the celestial globe and the book by Metius were not the most up-to-date.

                      2018救济金6元棋牌In essence, Vermeer shows us an astronomer/philosopher who, as Klass van Berkel wrote, reflects "on the nature of the cosmos, with the help of a book and some instruments; someone who not only calculates and describes, but who also reflects and contemplates."

                      Science in Vermeer's time

                      A mariner's astrolabe

                      Measuring the solar altitude with a
                      mariner's astrolabe. The astrolabe
                      was the most important astronomical
                      instrument during the middle ages.

                      From Adriaan Metius: De genuino usu utrisque
                      globi tractatus
                      , Franecker, 1624.

                      Vermeer lived in an age and nation where "pure" scientific investigation went hand-in-hand with the invention and perfection of scientific instrumentation. The Netherlands was for all practical purposes, a country constantly "under construction."

                      Cartography was employed for planning battles during the long, brutal war of independence fought against Spain while engineers provided the necessary mathematical knowledge for the construction of fortifications and assistance in sieges. In times of peace, cartography became indispensable for mapping shipping routes. Mathematics was required to develop efficient land reclamation schemes and defense systems against the sea which was a constant threat to a nation largely underneath the level of the sea.

                      Painters too, were not averse to utilizing scientific apparatus to understand and replicate complicated optical phenomena they wished to represent on their canvases. Vermeer almost certainly used the camera obscura at some stage in the painting process and at least once, a compass to draw the circular perimeter of a ceramic jug in his early Procuress.

                      In The Astronomer2018救济金6元棋牌, Vermeer displays various objects associated with scientific investigation: the celestial globe, a scientific chart and a manual for astronomers by Adriaan Metius, which lies open on the table, as well as an astrolabe. However, he did not intend to portray a real life astronomer. No telescope, a standard piece of equipment for the average astronomer, can be seen. Furthermore, while not obsolete, the celestial globe and the book by Metius were not the most up-to-date.

                      2018救济金6元棋牌In essence, Vermeer shows us an astronomer/philosopher who, as Klass van Berkel wrote, reflects "on the nature of the cosmos, with the help of a book and some instruments; someone who not only calculates and describes, but who also reflects and contemplates."

                      A showcase work for Hitler's museum

                      The Astronomer, recovered by the Monument Men

                      the recovery of Vermeer's Astronomer2018救济金6元棋牌 by the Monument Men

                      Adolf Hitler, himself a failed painter, ordered the pillaging of masterpieces from occupied Europe. One of the works he most coveted was Vermeer's Astronomer.

                      Hitler wanted The Astronomer, together with The Art of Painting, to be the centerpieces of a museum he planned to build in his hometown, Linz. The Astronomer must have appealed to his nationalistic ambitions since he was convinced that, as well as The Geographer, it celebrated early "Germanic" scientific achievements.

                      2018救济金6元棋牌The painting was confiscated, along with more than 5,000 other artworks, from Jewish financier Edouard de Rothschild, whose family had owned it for half a century. It was packed into a crate labeled H13 (H for Hitler), loaded onto a train and shipped from Paris to Germany on February 3, 1941.

                      The Astronomer was recovered by a cadre of art specialists known as "Monuments Men" in May 1945 with more than 8,000 other paintings, sculpture and artworks, hidden deep in a mountain salt mine in Altaussee, Austria. With it were Michelangelo's Bruges Madonna sculpture, dumped on a filthy mattress, and Jan Van Eyck's Ghent Altarpiece2018救济金6元棋牌. The mouth of the mine had been dynamited shut, and it was feared everything had been destroyed in compliance with Hitler's orders to prevent anything falling into the hands of the "conquerors."

                      Fortunately, Hitler's orders were subverted by two mine engineers who blew up the passages so the Nazis couldn't get past to detonate the rest of the mountain. After the war The Astronomer was returned to its owner, whose family gave or sold it to the Musée du Louvre in 1983.

                      The first painting by Vermeer ever to be reproduced

                      Louis Garreau, engraving of The Astronomer by Johannes Vermeer

                      In 1784, the French engraver Louis Garreau, temporarily in Amsterdam made a engraving of The Astronomer, making it the first painting by Vermeer to have ever been reproduced. At the time the painting was the showpiece of the collection of the widow of Jean Etienne Fizeaux, who had acquired the painting in Amsterdam in 1778. The engraving appeared only in 1792 in a supplement (Recueil de gravures au trait) to the illustrated catalogue of masterpieces published by the art dealer Jean Baptiste Pierre Lebrun (1748—1813), Galerie des peintres flamands, hollandais et allemands (Gallery of Flemish, Dutch, and German painters). There Lebrun made his oft-quoted comment concerning historians' neglect of Vermeer. "He is a very great painter, in the fashion of Metsu. His pictures are very rare, and are better known and more appreciated in Holland than anywhere else. He was especially fond of rendering the effects of sunlight, and sometimes succeeded to the point of complete illusion." In thoise years, the French art dealer Alexandrer Joseph Paillet and his Dutch colleague Jean Fouquet (1729-1800) offered The Astronomer2018救济金6元棋牌 to the King of France, with no success. Notwithstanding the King's refusal, Fouquet he was able to find a buyer when returned the painting to Amsterdam, and interest in the Delft master continued to gain momentum.

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