2018救济金6元棋牌

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                            Essential Vermeer 3.0

                            The Complete Interactive Vermeer Catalogue

                            The Geographer

                            (De geograaf)
                            c. 1668–1669
                            Oil on canvas
                            53 x 46.6 cm. (20 7/8 x 18 1/4 in.)
                            Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
                            inv. 1149

                            The textual material contained in the Essential Vermeer Interactive Catalogue would fill a hefty-sized book, and is enhanced by more than 1,000 corollary images. In order to use the catalogue most advantageously:

                            1. Slowly scroll your mouse over the painting to a point of particular interest. Relative information and images will slide into the box located to the right of the painting. To hold and scroll the slide-in information, single click on area of interest. To release the slide-in information, single-click on the painting again and continue exploring.

                            2. To access Special Topics and Fact Sheet information and accessory images, single-click any list item. To release slide-in information, click on any list item and continue exploring.

                            The terrestial globe

                            The Geographer (detail), Johannes Vermeer

                            The 17th century was a time of dramatic discovery, a time when the charting of unexplored worlds was a dream shared by adventurers and traders but by geographers and astronomers as well.

                            As James Welu pointed out, Hendrick Hondius' terrestrial globe, which rests on the cabinet in its four-legged stand, is turned to reveal the Indian Ocean, perhaps, as a note of national pride. This route was taken by the Dutch traders to reach China and Japan.

                            The text of the decorative cartouche on the lower right-hand side of the globe (illegible in Vermeer's paintings) reads in part: "Since very frequent expeditions are started every day to all parts of the world, by which their positions are clearly seen and reported, I trust that it will not appear strange to anyone if this description of the globe differs very much from others previously published by us...we ask the benevolent leader, that if he should have a more complete knowledge of some place, he willingly, communicate the same to us for the sake of increasing the public good." The same terrestrial globe appears in Vermeer's later Allegory of Faith but with a very different allegorical meaning.

                            Mapmaking in the Netherlands during the 1500s and 1600s is noted for its works of lavish decoration, particularly the cartes à figures, whose ornamental panels depicted figures, landscapes and possessions. Most of the period's maps and atlases were the work of family businesses.

                            The black-framed nautical chart

                            Sea chart in Johannes Vermeer's The Geographer

                            Vermeer surrounded his scholar with objects appropriate for his study. The black-framed decorative nautical chart of "all the Sea coasts of Europe" was made by Willem Jansz Blaeu in 1600 who had one of the largest publishing firms in Amsterdam. The actual globe, showing the Indian Ocean and the sea chart of Europe, are inscribed Orientalis Oceanus and Oceanus Occidentalis2018救济金6元棋牌, both ways on which the ships of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) sailed for their extensive trade with overseas.

                            2018救济金6元棋牌The detail to the left is from an existing copy of the background map showing the area which appears in Vermeer's painting. In this sea chart one can clearly make out the Iberian and Italian peninsulas as well as part of Northern Africa with the South to the left and North to the right. Map orientation was not yet standardized in those times. Typically, sea charts showed little details of the adjacent land but focused on navigational landmarks and hazards, anchorages and soundings, together with depictions of ships in full sail and mythical sea monsters as decoration.

                            Given the presence of the decorative cartouches, it may have been intended for framing as well as technical use. One such map can be found in the Deutsche Staatsbibliotek in Berlin.

                            2018救济金6元棋牌The sea chart may imply the need to chart one's course through the world, and thus symbolically through life. Maps and charts of all kinds were very popular in the Dutch mercantile republic which owed much of its prosperity to navigation. Contemporary genre interior paintings are filled with similar representations of maps and Vermeer himself included them a number of times in his works.

                            The floral tapestry

                            The Geographer (detail), Johannes Vermeer

                            The massive swath of drapery that cascades over the front of the table is so roughly painted that it is likely either unfinished or poorly conserved. Its origin is unknown, but the tight, swirling floral pattern indicates not what we call an oriental carpet—a pile-woven carpets imported in great numbers from the Islamic world—but a tapestry. Its design is similar, but perhaps not identical, to that of the tapestry of The Astronomer, the probable pendant of The Geographer.

                            2018救济金6元棋牌Initially, carpets and tapestries were represented with barely a fold, always flat, either parallel or perpendicular to the picture plane. Evidently, by representing them in such a manner their entrancing patterns and colors, which made them so desirable, were fully visible. The historian of Islamic art Carol Bier has suggested that the geometric patterns of oriental carpets may have stimulated the development of linear perspective. However, in the quest to obtain ever more naturalistic effects and showcase their professional skills, Dutch interior painters broke the traditional mode and began to represent intricately decorated carpets rucked up loosely on a table or draped from the ceiling, bunched up to the side. The challenge of maintaining the effect of continuous coloring of the intricately designed, multi-colored surfaces in both illuminated and shadowed parts of the folds was no less than daunting.3

                            Vermeer seems to have been particularity intrigued by the play of loose drapery—both featureless and patterned—and featured it in many of his interiors. In a number of mid-career works a blue clothe is set over the foreground table, rucked up to the side in bold piles. In The Geographer2018救济金6元棋牌 the tapestry cascades from the table top forming a sort of protective barrier for the work area of the figure while masking what would have been a rather large and uninteresting space under the table's top. The hilly folds and deep gorges create a sort a miniature landscape, with its peaks illuminated by the rising sun, while the tangled design may allude the geographer's mental activity.

                            Inspired by Rembrandt?

                            Faust in his Study, Rembrandt van Rijn

                            Faust in his Study
                            Rembrandt van Rijn
                            Etching, drypoint and burin on eastern paper, 20.8 x 16 cm.
                            2018救济金6元棋牌 1650–1662

                            2018救济金6元棋牌When viewing the original painting, it is possible to make out a vague pentimento of the geographer's forehead to the left which suggests that the artist originally portrayed it at a different angle, looking down at the chart lying on the table.

                            Vermeer's geographer assumes precisely the position (in reverse) of figure in Rembrandt's famous Faust (see$$$$$), which could have easily been his source of inspiration. Although the moment in which the scholar peers out the window in contemplation is magically captured, neither the questions he asks nor the answers he seeks are revealed.

                            Vermeer versus the fijnschilder style of painting

                            Woman at a Clavichord (detail), Gerrit Do

                            Woman at a Clavichord (detail)
                            Gerrit Dou
                            c. 1665
                            Oil on panel, 37.7 x 29.8 cm.
                            Dulwich Picture Gallery, Dulwich

                            Nowhere but in this painting can the distance between Vermeer's concept of art and that of his direct competitors, the fijnschilders, be so well observed. The principal masses of color and tone are rendered with the force and simplicity few of his colleagues were willing or able to achieve.

                            The now neglected but once immensely popular Leiden-based school lavished technical attention to their work reaching unprecedented illusionist effects. The level of microscopic detail of their paintings is astounding even today. Gerrit Dou, who perhaps carried the fijnschilder approach to its inevitable conclusion, painted each knot, one by one, of his repoussoir curtains (see$$$$$). More amazing is the overall dimension of the work, just 37 by 30 centimeters. Thus, the detail to the left comprises a fraction of Dou's composition. Vermeer's curtain is boldly indicated only by its simple contour.

                            A repoussoir, whether it is a person or an object, is placed usually in the margins of the foreground and is often shadowed so as not to draw too much attention to itself. Sitting at the margin, it implies the viewer's position outside the space of the painting. In the other direction, the scene of the painting, usually in brighter light, is "pushed back." The repoussoir is therefore a formal device for enhancing an impression of space.

                            Repoussoir motifs were generally positioned on the left-hand side of the composition. It seems that Westerners are conditioned in our mode of observation by the direction in which we read. Scientific evidence indicates that our eyes tend to rapidly scan images starting from the left to the right as when reading. By consequence, Vermeer's repoussoir is suited to be looked at by the reading eye, which, after a brief moment's delay at the repoussoir, is directed immediately toward the key moment of the representation, in this case the momentary gesture of the geographer, exploring the rest of the painting afterwards. Vermeer used the same repoussoir curtain even more dramatically in The Art of Painting and in the Allegory of Faith.

                            The rolled-up chart on the table

                            The Geographer (detail), Johannes Vermeer

                            Art historian and map expert James Welu believes that, given the translucence the large rolled chart on the table with a few faint lines, the rolled-up piece of paper may be a nautical chart. Unfortunately, the details and pictorial nuance in this area have most likely suffered from past restorations although some experts believe the painting was not finished.

                            A revealing pentimento

                            The Geographer (detail), Johannes Vermeer

                            The presence of a slightly lighter area of paint with curved outlines reveal that Vermeer had eliminated a sheet of paper which once laid on this stool in order to darken the corner of the composition and guide the viewer's eye towards the center of the composition. On the stool a square for measuring can be made out by the attentive viewer.

                            The geographer's dividers

                            Geographer's dividers

                            Vermeer altered the opening arc of the dividers that served the geographer to make precise measurements on his maps. They originally pointed downwards rather than across the his body. The final alignment seconds the angles of the yellowish scroll and the incoming light in an unobtrusive manner.

                            The window

                            The basic structure of the window seems to be the same as the one in The Astronomer, considered by many critics to be a pendant of The Geographer. However, minor differences in color in each of the window's panes are described more accurately in The Geographer while in The Astronomer a portion of what is most likely red and yellow colored coat of arms can be partially observed. Parts of the window casement appear rather sketchily painted.

                            The double signatures

                            Oddly, there are two signatures on The Geographer. Scholars once believed that the noticeable signature on the background wall (with the date in Roman numerals) was not original even though the date, MDCLXVIIII (1669) was compatible with the date Vermeer experts have ascribed to the painting. On the contrary, recent restoration of the painting have demonstrated that both signatures are original.

                            The geographer's robe

                            Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

                            Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (detail)
                            Jan Verkolje
                            c. 1680–1686
                            Oil on canvas, 56 x 47.5 cm.
                            2018救济金6元棋牌 Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

                            The type of imported Japanese robe worn by the contemplating geographer was much in vogue in mid-17th century Netherlands. A similar garment is worn in the portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the internationally known Delft scientist who has been associated with Vermeer through their mutual interest in optics, in a portrait by Jan Verkolje (see$$$$$).

                            In those days such keizersrokken, or Imperial kimonos, were precious gifts given in batches of thirty or more to Dutch merchants who were qualified to visit to the Imperial court in Edo (Tokyo). This visit was their only permitted sojourn on the Japanese mainland. All other times they were confined to Deshima. Thus, these robes, also called Japons, or Japonsche rocken were neither merchandise in Japan nor Holland. There honorary significance made them suited for indoor wear by scholars, amateurs, scientists, gentlemen, and even mayors. Many painters portray themselves wearing this garment. Only by the mid 18th century were they mass produced in Europe from imported Indian and Chinese silk. In Vermeer's picture, then, the geographer wears a stylish uncommon garment that had as yet had not been commodified. By the late 17th century the Japonsche rock became so popular that regulations were enacted to prohibit them from being worn in church.

                            The angular folds and contrast between the colors of the geographer's orange-trimmed Japon2018救济金6元棋牌 stimulate the eye and discreetly suggest action and vivacity, befitting of his intellectual inquirey. Vermeer's stylization of drapery was to become even more exaggerated in his following pictures.

                            Unfinished?

                            The Geographer (detail of signature), Johannes Vermeer

                            More than one critic has suggested that The Geographer is not finished. The wooden window frame, the carpet and the floor all are defined in their essential features but lack color and nuance characteristic of Vermeer's works of the period, especially, that of The Astronomer, its presumed pendant. The cupboard, presumable made of light-colored wood, appears vague and the play of light and shadow on the decorative inlay particularly tentative.

                            2018救济金6元棋牌One would imagine that the cupboard served to contain the various instruments and charts of the geographer.

                            Curiously, The Geographer2018救济金6元棋牌 bears two distinct signatures, the present one of the cupboard and one with a date MDCLXVIIII (1669) on the background wall. Although scholars once thought that neither was original it seems now likely that they are both authentic.

                            The chair in the background

                            The Geographer, a  chair

                            This chair is, perhaps, one and the same chair that appears behind the table in Vermeer's Girl with a Pearl Necklace and the Concert. The dense, decorative flower motif (in Dutch, gezaeyde ofte gestroyde Bloemen, of the three chairs match closely.

                            2018救济金6元棋牌Such chairs were probably manufactured in Delft. Its curious upholstery is rarely seen in masters who worked elsewhere. In the Municipal Museum at Delft six of the 41 chairs are preserved, which in 1661 were delivered by Maximiliaan van der Gucht, the famous Delft tapestry weaver, to the Town Council, or so-called "The Forty." Van der Gucht also made tapestries and chair cushions with similar flower motifs. In 1661 he was commissioned to produce a series of tapestries and pillows with tulip-designs for the States of Holland.

                            A cross-staff?

                            Cross-staff, Northern Germany

                            Cross-staff, Northern Germany(?)
                            signed: L. Dankbaar, dated 1790
                            Ebony, brass 75.5 x 1,7 x 1.7 cm.
                            3 sliders (51 cm., 34 cm., 17 cm.)
                            with binding screws
                            Altonaer Museum Hamburg
                            2018救济金6元棋牌 - Norddeutsches Landesmuseum, Hamburg

                            According to some Vermeer scholars, what seems to be part of the window grate is in reality a part of a Jacob's or cross-staff even though it may be difficult to recognize.

                            The cross-staff was developed in the early 14th century although similar devices for measurement were traced to the Chaldeans (c. 400 B.C.). The instrument was mainly used for measuring the angle of the elevation of the sun and stars as well as measuring the heights of buildings or topographical features such as mountains and hills, which made it a usual device both for astronomers and geographers. Although the Jacob's staff was reasonably accurate, it was not very handy. In this respect the Holland circle (circumferentor), invented around 1605 by the Leiden surveyor Jan Dou, was a great improvement.

                            Kees Zandvliet has pointed out that given that the instruments depicted in The Geographer—such as the Jacob's staff and compasses—were indeed practical instruments, it would seem that Vermeer did not intend to paint an armchair scientist. In fact, it has been suggested that the scientist portrayed here is none other than Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, who was not only the inventor of the microscope and father of microbiology, but a qualified surveyor as well.

                            Vermeer & Spinoza

                            Baruch Spinoza

                            Baruch Spinoza

                            2018救济金6元棋牌Owing to its relatively tolerant political and religious attitude, the United Provinces had become a magnet for some of the great thinkers of the century, such as John Locke and Baruch Spinoza. Theirs was an age of observation and scientific discovery in which religious faith was no longer sufficient guidance for all men. Optical instruments, such as the telescope, microscope and camera obscura (Vermeer certainly knew the latter) had become means to scrutinize the "anatomy of the universe" and sight itself had become an issue of intense philosophical speculation.

                            2018救济金6元棋牌In recent years, various writers have endeavored to link Vermeer's measured art and his concerns with optics with these revolutionary intellectual currents. Accordingly, the artist would have employed the camera obscura not merely as a mechanical means for studying and transcribing outward appearances but for its philosophical implications. The historian Robert Huerta promoted the Delft artist to the role of the natural philosopher.

                            Vermeer and Spinoza had some things in common. Spinoza was born in the same year as the artist, 1632, and died in 1677, two years after Vermeer. Spinoza's Tydeman home, just an hour twenty-minute walk to Vermeer's house in Delft, was seven miles away. There is no proof that Vermeer knew Spinoza or even if Spinoza's ideas were discussed in Delft but in the age when books were still expensive commodities, five folios and twenty-five assorted books reported in the inventory of the artist's estate testify that he was not unlearned. Whether or not Vermeer occupied himself with the scientific and philosophical debates of the time remains uncertain but he left two powerful images which al least show his admiration for the scientists of his time, The Astronomer and The Geographer2018救济金6元棋牌 painted between 1668 and 1669.

                            2018救济金6元棋牌Spinoza had a solid grasp of optical theory and of the then-current physics of light, and was competent enough to engage in sophisticated discussion with correspondents over fine points in the mathematics of refraction. We know that Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, the distinguished scientist and lens-grinder, almost certainly knew Vermeer since both lived in Delft. We would expect Van Leeuwenhoek was aware of Spinoza's reputation for either for his work with lenses or for and free-thinking heresies which came under fire in the late 1660s.

                            Some writers have associated Spinoza's praise of the contemplative and intellectual life as the highest of man's achievements with the people that appear in Vermeer's paintings, many of whom are pictures absorbed in rapt contemplation or engaged in intellectual pursuits. From a formal point of view Vermeer compositions have an uncommon air of equilibrium as if every element had been examined and exactly ordered within the perimeters of his composition according to some unknown plan. As one author wrote, Vermeer's thoughtful compositions stand for the independent mental activity of his figures. His penchant for geometrical forms have been indirectly linked to the subtitle of Spinoza's Ethics, ordine geometrico demonstrate (arrange according to geometric principles).

                            The white folio

                            Like the figure's face, the white surface of the paper has been overcleaned, so its purpose can no longer be identified.

                            The white-washed wall

                            Jacobus Vrel

                            Interior with a Woman Combing a Little Girl’s Hair
                            Jacobus Vrel
                            c. 1654/1662
                            Oil on oak panel, 55.9 x 40.6 cm.
                            2018救济金6元棋牌 The Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit

                            Of all of Dutch painters, only Vermeer and the obscure Jacob Vrel (fl. 1654–1662) seemed to have attached great importance to the background walls of their scenes. Vermeer exploited the walls to established the intensity and direction of the incoming light, as well as create a specific atmosphere adapted to the painting's particular meaning. He especially relished in depiction the shadows that are cast upon them by paintings-within-painting and nearby pieces furniture. In The Geographer, the shadows cast by the globe and cupboard play crucial roles in unifying the compositonal elements to form a single indissoluble unity. The strong diagonal of the cupboard's shadow overlaps the lower corner of the ebony-framed nautical map bonding it to the rest of the composition despite the empty gulf that separates it from the rest of the composition and the fact that most of the map disappears off the painting's right-hand edge. The vertical edge of the same shadow terminates near the profile of the background chair allowing raking light to brighten the decorative patters of the chair's upholstery and a slim rectangle of wall to its left. The hazy shadow cast by globe is particularity suggestive.

                            The Delft floor tiles

                            2018救济金6元棋牌Many middle eastern and southern countries used tiles on floors or the exteriors of buildings for decorative or protective purposes. This was not possible in the Netherlands because winters were much colder so the tiles would only last for a few years: used for flooring they eventually lost their glazed images. Initially, the Dutch used tiles to cover the inside of fireplaces, which were eternally sooty, since they were unaffected by the high temperatures and were easy to clean. Soon after they noticed that the same wall tiles could be used to protect them from humidity and stains as it was difficult to heat houses of the time. Demand increased with the growing prosperity. Tradesmen and farmers wanted decorated tiles too.

                            The original Delft tile designs came about when Chinese porcelain stopped being imported in the mid-seventeenth century and Dutch potters began to produce ceramic ware of high quality in blue and white, decorated initially with faux Chinese designs. Since this type of pottery was produced mainly around the city of Delft, it was eventually referred to as Delftware, or Delft Blauw2018救济金6元棋牌. Even though tiles were not a major product, they were nonetheless produced and exported in vast numbers (estimated at eight hundred million) to France, Germany, Russia, Spain and the Ottoman Empire over a period of two hundred years : many Dutch houses still have tiles that were fixed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Ships, windmills, child play and animals were just a few of the most popular themes.

                            The Geographers (detail), Johannes Vermeer

                            As can be seen in many Dutch paintings of the time were set in a single row at the base of walls in order to protect them from the daily assault of brooms and mops. Floor tiles appear in five paintings by Vermeer. Differently than those of A Lady Seated and A Lady Standing at a Virginal, the background color of those of The Milmaid, Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid and The Geographer are tinged slightly blue. The decorative motifs on the row of tiles in The Geographer are so sparingly painted that they cannot be made out. The tiles of The Milkmaid lack the flourishes in the corners present in The Geographer.

                            The sketchy floor

                            Unlike most of Vermeer's late works, The Geographer2018救济金6元棋牌 features a mundane nondescript floor. The sketchy of this and other passages of the paintings suggests that it may have not been completely finished.

                            The Geographer  (detail), Johannes Vermeer

                            The signatures

                            Signature of Vermeer's Geographer

                            There are two signatures on The Geographer. Scholars once believed that this conspicuous signature on the background wall (with the date in Roman numerals) was not original even though the date, MDCLXVIIII (1669) was compatible with the date most Vermeer experts have ascribed to the painting. Recent restoration have demonstrated that both are original.

                            Signature of Vermeer's Geographer

                            This signature on the cupboard is now esteemed to be authentic as the one above.

                            (Click here to access a complete study of Vermeer's signatures.)

                            Dates

                            1669
                            Albert Blankert, Vermeer: 1632–1675, 1975

                            c.1668–1669
                            Arthur K. Wheelock Jr., Vermeer: The Complete Works2018救济金6元棋牌, New York, 1997

                            1669
                            Walter Liedtke, Vermeer: The Complete Paintings, New York, 2008

                            1669
                            Wayne Franits, Vermeer, 2015

                            (Click here to access a complete study of the dates of Vermeer's paintings).

                            Technical report

                            The support is a closed, plain-weave linen with a thread count of 14 x 11 per cm², the original tacking edges of which are still present. The canvas was lined, resulting in weave emphasis.

                            A gray ground containing chalk, umber, and lead white extends to the tacking edges. The paint was applied wet-in-wet in places. Many different textural effects have been created with the use of glazing, scumbling, impasto, and dry brushstrokes. The vanishing point of the composition is visible in the paint layer on the wall between the chair and the cupboard. Some abrasion, particularly in the shadows in the map, has resulted from past cleaning.

                            * Johannes Vermeer (exh. cat., National Gallery of Art and Royal Cabinet of Paintings Mauritshuis - Washington and The Hague, 1995, edited by Arthur K. Wheelock Jr.)

                            The painting in its frame

                            (Click here to access all of Vermeer's paintings in their frames).

                            The Geographer in its frame, Johannes Vermeer

                            Provenance

                            • (?) Adriaen Paets I, Rotterdam (?1669-d.1686);
                            • (?) his son, Adriaen Paets II, Rotterdam (1686-d.1712);
                            • sale (Paets et al.?), Rotterdam, 27 April, 1713, no. 10 or 11, sold together with The Astronomer;
                            • Hendrick Sorgh, Amsterdam (?1713-d.1720);
                            • Sorgh sale, Amsterdam, 28 March, 1720, no. 3 or 4, sold together with The Astronomer;
                            • Govert Looten, Amsterdam (before d.1727);
                            • Looten sale, Amsterdam, 31 March, 1729, no. 6, sold together with pendant of the same no. Jacob Crammer Simonsz, Amsterdam (by d.1778);
                            • Crammer Simonsz sale, Amsterdam, 25 November, 1778, no. 18, sold together with The Astronomer as pendant (to De Vries);
                            • Jean Etienne Fizeaux, Amsterdam (1778-d.1780);
                            • his widow, Amsterdam (1780-?1785);
                            • [Pieter Fouquet, Amsterdam, and Alexandre Joseph Paillet, Paris, 1784–85];
                            • Jan Danser Nijman, Amsterdam (?before 1794-d.1796);
                            • Danser Nijman sale, Amsterdam, 16 August, 1797, no. 168, sold separately (to Josi);
                            • [Christian Josi, Amsterdam and London];
                            • Arnoud de Lange, Amsterdam (?1797-d.1803);
                            • De Lange sale, Amsterdam, 12 December, 1803, no. 55 (to Coclers);
                            • Johann Goll van Franckenstein, Jr., Velzen and Amsterdam (before 1821);
                            • Pieter Hendrick Goll van Franckenstein, Amsterdam (before 1832);
                            • Goll van Franckenstein sale, Amsterdam, 1 July, 1833, no. 47 (to Nieuwenhuys);
                            • [Christian Johannes Nieuwenhuys, Brussels and London; sold to Dumont];
                            • Alexandre Dumont, Cambrai (before 1860–1866);
                            • Isaac Péreire, Paris, 1866 (sold via Thoré-Bürger from Dumont);
                            • Péreire brothers sale, Paris, 6 March, 1872, no. 132;
                            • (?) Max Kann, Paris (?1872);
                            • [Sedelmeyer, Paris, c. 1875; sold to Demidoff];
                            • Prince Demidoff di San Donato, near Florence (before 1877–1880);
                            • Demidoff sale, San Donato, 15 March, 1880, no. 1124 (to Bösch?);
                            • Adolf Josef Bösch, Döbling, Vienna (?1880-d.1884);
                            • Bösch sale, Vienna, 28 April, 1885, no. 32 (to Ludwig Kohlbacher of the Frankfurter Kunstverein on behalf of the Städelsches Kunstinstitut);
                            • 26 May, 1885 to the Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main (inv. 1149).

                            Exhibitions

                            • Paris 1866
                              Exposition rétrospective tableaux anciens empruntés aux galeries particulières
                              Palais des Champs-Elysées
                              35, no. 106
                            • Paris 1874
                              Exposés au profit de la colonisation de l'Algérie par les Alsaciens-Lorrains
                              Palais de la Présidence du Corps léegislatif
                              60, no. 332
                            • Paris 1898
                              Illustrated catalogue of 300 Paintings by Old Masters of Dutch, Flemish, French, and English School Being Some of the Principal Pictures Which Have at Various Times Formed Part of Sedelmeyer Gallery
                              Sedelmeyer Gallery
                              104, no. 87 and ill.
                            • Paris 1914
                              Hundred Masterpieces. A Selection from the Pictures by Old Master
                              Sedelmeyer Gallery
                              54, no. 25 and ill.
                            • Rotterdam 1935
                              Vermeer, oorsprong en invloed. Fabritius, de Hooch, de Witte
                              Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
                              38, no. 87 and ill. 68
                            • Washington D.C November 12, 1995–February 11, 1996
                              Johannes Vermeer
                              National Gallery of Art
                              170–175, no. 16 and ill.
                            • The Hague March 1–June 2, 1996
                              Johannes Vermeer
                              Royal Cabinet of Paintings Mauritshuis
                              170–175, no. 16 and ill.
                            • Frankfurt 1997
                              Johannes Vermeer: der Geograph und der Astronom nach 200 Jahren wieder vereint
                              Städelschen Kunstinstitut
                              no.1
                            • Osaka 4 April–2 July, 2000
                              The Public and the Private in the Age of Vermeer
                              Osaka Municipal Museum of Art
                              190–193, no. 35 and ill.
                            • Kassel February 14–May 11, 2003
                              Johannes Vermeer: Der Geograph. Die Wissenschaft der Malerei (The Geographer. The Science of Painting)
                              Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Museumslandschaft Hessen
                            • Rotterdam October 23, 2004–January 9, 2005
                              Senses and Sins: Dutch Painters of Daily Life in the Seventeenth Century
                              Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
                            • Frankfurt February 10–May 1, 2005
                              Senses and Sins: Dutch Painters of Daily Life in the Seventeenth Century
                              Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie
                            • Bilbao October 7, 2010–January 23, 2011
                              The Golden Age of Dutch and Flemish Painting from the Städel Museum
                              Guggenheim
                            • Aichi (Japan) June 11–August 28, 2011
                              The Golden Age of Dutch and Flemish Painting from the Städel Museum
                              Toyota Municipal Museum of Aichi
                            • Budapest October 31, 2014–February 15, 2015
                              Rembrandt and the Dutch Golden Age
                              Szépművészeti Múzeum
                            • Frankfurt October 7, 2015–January 24, 2016
                              Masterworks in Dialogue: Eminent Guests for the Anniversary
                              Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main
                            • St. Petersburg August 27–November 20, 2016
                              Johannes Vermeer: "The Geographer" fom the Städelsches Kunstinstitut (Masterpieces from the World's Museums in the Hermitage)
                              Hermitage
                            • Paris February 20–May 22, 2017
                              Vermeer and the Masters of Genre Painting: Inspiration and Rivalry
                              Musée du Louvre
                            • Dublin June 17–September 17, 2017
                              Vermeer and the Masters of Genre Painting: Inspiration and Rivalry
                              National Gallery of Ireland
                            • Washington D.C. October 22, 2017–January 21, 2018
                              Vermeer and the Masters of Genre Painting: Inspiration and Rivalry
                              National Gallery of Art
                            • Madrid June 25–September 29, 2019
                              Velázquez, Rembrandt, Vermeer. Parallel Visions
                              Museo Nacional del Prado

                            (Click here to access a complete, sortable list of the exhibitions of Vermeer's paintings).

                            The painting in scale

                            (Click here to access all of Vermeer's paintings in scale).

                            Johannes Vermeer's Geographer in scale
                            1668
                            Vermeer's life Vermeer signs and dates The Astronomer 1668. Some scholars believe that Delft citizen Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, who was by then internationally recognized for his studies in optics and scientific observations, posed for The Astronomer, although portraits of Leeuwenhoek bears little resemblance to the seated man in Vermeer's picture.
                            Dutch painting

                            Rembrandt paints Return of the Prodigal Son.

                            Gabriel van de Velde paints Golfers on the Ice.

                            Philips Wouwerman2018救济金6元棋牌, Dutch painter, dies. He was the most celebrated member of a family of Dutch painters from Haarlem, where he worked virtually all his life. He became a member of the painters' guild in 1640 and is said by a contemporary source to have been a pupil of Frans Hals. The only thing he has in common with Hals, however, is his nimble brushwork, for he specialized in landscapes of hilly country with horses—cavalry skirmishes, camps, hunts, travelers halting outside an inn, and so on. In this genre he was immensely prolific and also immensely successful.

                            European painting & architecture

                            Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, Austian architect, is born.

                            Bernini sculpts a terra cotta study for one of the angels of Rome's Port Santa Angelo.

                            Music

                            Nov 10, Francois Couperin, composer and organist (Concerts Royaux), is born in Paris, France.

                            Danish organist-composer Diderik Buxtehude2018救济金6元棋牌, 31, is named organist at the Marienkirche in Lübeck, succeeding Franz Tunder (whose daughter, Anna, he marries). His sacred Abendmusiken concerts will be presented each year during Advent on the five Sundays before Christmas. Buxtehude's cantatas and instrumental organ work will have a strong influence on other composers.

                            Mar 5, Francesco Gasparini, composer, is born.

                            Literature

                            Apr 13, John Dryden (36) became 1st English poet laureate.

                            Science & philosophy

                            Robert Hooke: Discourse on Earthquakes.

                            Newton invents the reflecting telescope, building the first telescope based on a mirror (reflector) instead of a lens (refractor).

                            First accurate description of red corpuscles by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. Leeuwenhoek was born in the same year as Vermeer and is often associated to the artist for their interest in optics.

                            Chemist Johann R. Glauber dies at Amsterdam March 10 at age 63.

                            History

                            Mar 26, England takes control of Bombay, India.

                            Mar 27, English king Charles II2018救济金6元棋牌 gives Bombay to the East India Company.

                            Sep 16, King John Casimer II of Poland abdicates his throne.

                            Louis XIV2018救济金6元棋牌 of France purchased the 112 carat blue diamond from John Baptiste Tavernier for 220,000 livre. Tavernier is also given a title of nobility.

                            Feb 7, The Netherlands, England and Sweden conclude an alliance 2018救济金6元棋牌directed against Louis XIV of France.

                            1669
                            Vermeer's life

                            Vermeer's mother, Digna Baltens, leases the inn Mechelen to a shoemaker for three years. She and her husband had worked in the place for 28 years. Afterwards she goes to live with her daughter Gertruy on the Vlamingstraat, in Delft.

                            Vermeer and his wife bury another child 2018救济金6元棋牌in the Oude Kerk.

                            Pieter Teding van Berckhout2018救济金6元棋牌, from an important family in The Hague, visits Vermeer twice and enters in his diaries his impressions. In May 14, 1669, Van Berckhout writes: "Having arrived in Delft, I saw an excellent painter named Vermeer," stating also that he had seen several "curiosities" of the artist. He had arrived in Delft accompanied by Constantijn Huygens and his friends—member of parliament Ewout van der Horst and ambassador Willem Nieupoort. Huygens was an artistic authority in his own day, maintaining contacts with the famous Flemish painters Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck and recording in his own diary some remarkably insightful comments about the art of, among others, Rembrandt van Rijn.

                            2018救济金6元棋牌Van Berckhout must have been deeply impressed by the work he saw in Vermeer 's studio, since he returned for another visit less than a month later. On June 11, Van Berckhout notes: "I went to see a celebrated painter named Vermeer" who "showed me some examples of his art, the most extraordinary and most curious aspect of which consists in the perspective." This time Van Berckhout used the term "celebrated" rather than "excellent" in describing Vermeer. This testifies Vermeer had achieved a rather considerable reputation. What is most interesting about this visit is that Vermeer's studio (like Dou and van Mieris) had evidently evidentbecome a major cultural destination.

                            Dutch painting Oct. 4, Rembrandt dies, eleven months later after his son, Titus, in 1668—only 27 years of age. His beloved Hendrickje had died in 1663.
                            European painting & architecture

                            Le Vau2018救济金6元棋牌 begins remodeling Versailles.

                            The semicircular Sheldonian Theater at Oxford, England, designed by Christopher Wren, is completed.

                            Music

                            Royal patent for founding Academie Royale des Operas granted to Pierre Perrin.

                            Marc' Antonio Cesti, Italian composer, dies.

                            The first Stradivarius violin is created by Italian violinmaker Antonio Stradivari, 25, who has served an apprenticeship in his home town of Cremona in Lombardy to Nicola Amati, now 73, whose grandfather Andrea Amati designed the modern violin. The younger Amati has improved on his grandfather's design and taught not only Stradivari but also Andrea Guarnieri, 43, who also makes violins at Cremona.

                            Literature
                            Science & philosophy

                            Arnold Geulincx2018救济金6元棋牌 (b. 1624), Dutch philosopher, dies.

                            Nicolaus Steno (1638–1687) begins the modern study of geology.

                            Nils Steensen's Prodromus is first published in Italy and translated to English two years later. It explains the author's determination of the successive order of the earth strata.

                            Emperor Leopold I2018救济金6元棋牌 sanctions the foundation of a higher school in Innsbruck, Austria. This is considered to mark the founding of the University of Innsbruck.

                            A General History of the Insects by Jan Swammerdam presents a preexistence theory of genetics that the seed of every living creature was formed at the creation of the world and that each generation is contained in the generation that preceded it.

                            History

                            Pope Clement IX2018救济金6元棋牌 dies at Rome December 9 at age 69 after a 2½-year reign in which he has encouraged missionary work, reduced taxes, and extended hospitality to Sweden's former queen Kristina. He will not be replaced until next year.

                            Feb 1, French King Louis XIV2018救济金6元棋牌 limits the freedom of religion.

                            Mar 11, Mount Etna in Sicily erupts killing 15,000.

                            Sep 27, The island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea falls to the Ottoman Turks after a 21-year siege.

                            Tolerance in 17th-century Netherlands

                            Ethica, Baruch Spinoza

                            The opening page of
                            Ethica
                            2018救济金6元棋牌 Baruch Spinoza

                            It is generally accepted that upon Vermeer's wedding to Catharina Bolnes, the artist converted to Catholicism. We have no objective evidence that his conversion—in any case an extremely rare event in the Netherlands—caused him any undue difficulties during his career. He lived with his Catholic mothered-in-law, Maria Thins, in the Catholic "Papist's Corner" in Delft and brought up his children according to the Catholic faith. While religious conversion in the Netherlands was frowned upon, it was nonetheless tolerated.

                            While not free from religious conflict, the Netherlands had a long tradition of religious tolerance. The Union of Utrecht, signed on 23 January, 1579, declared individuals free to choose their own religion. For centuries the Dutch Reformed Church was the privileged church, but other denominations were allowed to perform their worship services. The Dutch Republic became a refuge for religious and political dissidents from abroad, including such groups as Jews and Huguenots, as well as such noted individuals as Baruch de Spinoza and René Descartes. In combination with a vibrant commercial culture and schools that were developing excellent reputations, this tolerant society provided fertile soil for cultivating a scientific way of looking at the world.

                            2018救济金6元棋牌However, tolerance did not reside in a coherent body of law although Dutch intellectuals vigorously discussed the foundations of their new republic. More generally, the climate of lenience and a free press allowed thinkers like Coornhert, Grotius, and Gerard Noodt, as well as foreign residents or visitors like Bayle and Locke, to explore the philosophical properties of tolerance. However, there were clear boundaries beyond which they could not venture.

                            2018救济金6元棋牌Spinoza and his followers discovered that freedom of conscience did not mean freedom of thought. They risked censure and punishment especially when their works were seen as undermining the Christian foundations of the Republic. Despite such limitations, it was precisely this philosophical speculation that over time helped the Netherlands to serve as a model elsewhere.

                            Who posed for the painting?

                            Anthonie van Leeuwenhoek, Jan Verkolje

                            Anthonie van Leeuwenhoek (detail)
                            Jan Verkolje
                            c. 1680–1686
                            Oil on canvas, 56 x 47.5 cm.
                            Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

                            In the construction of The Geographer, Vermeer was most likely guided by someone familiar with geography and navigation as demonstrated by the artist's sophisticated description of the scientific instruments. Moreover, none of these expensive instruments are mentioned in the artist's death inventory of movable goods. In Delft, Anthoni van Leeuwenhoek was well known for his discoveries with the microscope but was also described as being skilled in "navigation, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy and natural sciences." He was born in Delft on 1632 the same year as Vermeer. Some experts believe it was Van Leeuwenhoek who posed for both The Geographer and The Astronomer and perhaps commissioned them too. A portrait (see$$$$$)2018救济金6元棋牌 by Delft painter Jan Verkolje shows the scientist when he was fifty-four years old, some eighteen years after Vermeer's painting. Whether or not the features are similar to the long-haired scholar in Vermeer's painting is debatable.

                            The art of 17th-century mapmaking

                            2018救济金6元棋牌Cartography is one of the oldest human occupations. It evolved to a high standard of a science, a technology and an art, especially from the Renaissance and onwards; its peak was reached in the 17th and 18th centuries. The historian R.S. Westfall has demonstrated that almost "two out of five" scientists were then dealing with cartography.

                            2018救济金6元棋牌The Dutch were then world leaders in the field of cartographic production: globes, maps, charts and atlases were issued in unprecedented quantities during the 17th century in the Netherlands, with its main production center in Amsterdam. In Vermeer's time, mapmaking and painting were not clearly distinct disciplines as they are today. 17th-century mapmakers required a combination of skills. Other than a thorough knowledge of surveying, the mapmaker had to know how to draw, watercolor and create decorative motifs. If the maps were to be reproduced, he had to be thoroughly versed in engraving, printing, calligraphy and marketing techniques as well.

                            Such sophisticated products remained expensive so the number of specialists remained small. Elaborate, decorative maps, like those in Vermeer's paintings, were sold alongside books in specialty shops on Binnenhof in The Hague and around Dam Square in Amsterdam. But there are numerous testimonies that simple citizens were inclined to make maps of their own.

                            Floris Balthasar, a mapmaker, citizen of Delft and member of the Guild of Saint Luke of Delft, would have regarded himself as a cunstwerker in caerten2018救济金6元棋牌, an artist in mapmaking.

                            Balthasar pointed out the dual functions of the map. On one hand they could be used for military operations, for architecture, for hydraulic works, for sea trade and for questions of land ownership. On the other hand, maps could be collected to increase knowledge of the world, insight into history and the joy of learning of God's creation of the world.

                            Why & for whom were globes made?

                            Terrestrial Globe, Jacobus Hondius

                            Terrestrial Globe
                            Jacobus Hondius 1618

                            2018救济金6元棋牌The initial impetus for developing and manufacturing globes as a commercial enterprise was provided by a desire for geographical information in the period of the great discoveries. Although their decorative function must have been an important concern, in general, globes were constructed with the stated aim of promoting geographical and astronomical studies recording the latest geographical and astronomical information. Once a globe was made it was complicated and expensive to correct the engraved copper plates in order to print new versions. Thus, while most globes exhibit an up-to-date geographical picture when the plates were first engraved, for years to come they were rarely altered so that the majority of existing globes was out-of-date.

                            In order to commercialize their globes, manufacturers advertised them as scientific aids for navigation, especially in the 16th and early 17th centuries. Jacob Hondius, the producer of the globes in Vermeer's paintings, gave this as a reason for making globes although seamen rejected them due to the difficulties involved in making accurate measurements around a curved surface.

                            Nonetheless, the globe became a symbol more than a tool of navigation, and therefore an object desired by Dutch merchants. This side-effect not only stimulated an expansion in globe production, it also made it possible to sell out-of-date globes. Those who purchased globes for their symbolic value were far less concerned about their scientific accuracy than its decorative aspect. At times, globes were sold that were constructed more than a century ago.

                            Vermeer & Spinoza

                            Portrait of Baruch Spinoza

                            Baruch Spinoza

                            Owing to its relatively tolerant political and religious attitude, the United Provinces had become a magnet for some of the great thinkers of the century, such as John Locke and Baruch Spinoza. Theirs was an age of observation and scientific discovery in which religious faith was no longer sufficient guidance for all men. Optical instruments, such as the telescope, microscope and camera obscura (Vermeer certainly knew the latter) had become means to scrutinize the "anatomy of the universe" and sight itself had become an issue of intense philosophical speculation.

                            In recent years, various writers have endeavored to link Vermeer's measured art and his concerns with optics with these revolutionary intellectual currents. Accordingly, the artist would have employed the camera obscura not merely as a mechanical means for studying and transcribing outward appearances but for its philosophical implications. The historian Robert Huerta promoted the Delft artist to the role of the natural philosopher.

                            Vermeer and Spinoza had some things in common. Spinoza was born in the same year as the artist, 1632, and died in 1677, two years after Vermeer. Spinoza's Tydeman home, just an hour twenty-minute walk to Vermeer's house in Delft, was seven miles away. There is no proof that Vermeer knew Spinoza or even if Spinoza's ideas were discussed in Delft but in the age when books were still expensive commodities, five folios and twenty-five assorted books reported in the inventory of the artist's estate testify that he was not unlearned. Whether or not Vermeer occupied himself with the scientific and philosophical debates of the time remains uncertain but he left two powerful images which al least show his admiration for the scientists of his time, The Astronomer and The Geographer2018救济金6元棋牌 painted between 1668 and 1669.

                            2018救济金6元棋牌Spinoza had a solid grasp of optical theory and of the then-current physics of light, and was competent enough to engage in sophisticated discussion with correspondents over fine points in the mathematics of refraction. We know that Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, the distinguished scientist and lens-grinder, almost certainly knew Vermeer since both lived in Delft. We would expect Van Leeuwenhoek was aware of Spinoza's reputation for either for his work with lenses or for and free-thinking heresies which came under fire in the late 1660s.

                            Some writers have associated Spinoza's praise of the contemplative and intellectual life as the highest of man's achievements with the people that appear in Vermeer's paintings, many of whom are pictures absorbed in rapt contemplation or engaged in intellectual pursuits. From a formal point of view Vermeer compositions have an uncommon air of equilibrium as if every element had been examined and exactly ordered within the perimeters of his composition according to some unknown plan. As one author wrote, Vermeer's thoughtful compositions stand for the independent mental activity of his figures. His penchant for geometrical forms have been indirectly linked to the subtitle of Spinoza's Ethics, ordine geometrico demonstrate2018救济金6元棋牌 (arrange according to geometric principles).

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