2018救济金6元棋牌

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            Essential Vermeer 3.0

            The Complete Interactive Vermeer Catalogue

            Saint Praxedis

            (questionable, attributed to Vermeer)
            1655
            Oil on canvas, 101.6 x 82.6 cm. (40 x 32 1/2 in.)
            National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo

            The textual material contained in the Essential Vermeer Interactive Catalogue would fill a hefty-sized book, and is enhanced by more than 1,000 corollary images. In order to use the catalogue most advantageously:

            1. Slowly scroll your mouse over the painting to a point of particular interest. Relative information and images will slide into the box located to the right of the painting. To hold and scroll the slide-in information, single click on area of interest. To release the slide-in information, single-click on the painting again and continue exploring.

            2. To access Special Topics and Fact Sheet information and accessory images, single-click any list item. To release slide-in information, click on any list item and continue exploring.

            image/svg+xml

            The young saint's face

            St. Praxedes (detail), attributed to Johannes Vermeer

            Those who sustain Vermeer's authorship of the Saint Praxedis frequently point out the similarly of the Saint's physiognomy with that of the dozing girl in A Maid Asleep (see right, the detail of A Maid Asleep has been reversed to facilitate comparison). According to Vermeer expert Arthur K. Wheelock Jr., the brushwork, paint structure and buildup of the heads are analogous.

            In any case, the young Vermeer seems to have already revealed his life-long fascination for female interiority in his early history paintings. For although the Diana and her Companions and the Christ in the House of Martha and Mary represent themes of great historical import, we sense that the artist's interest lies as much in the women as individuals as protagonists of some impending narrative.

            2018救济金6元棋牌With respect to the original, the modeling in Vermeer's copy is more accentuated making Ficherelli's face appear sweeter of the two, and the head in Vermeer's version seems slightly elongated.

            The blue sky

            U;ltramarine paint

            2018救济金6元棋牌The intense blue sky was painted according to Italian practice. A mixture of natural ultramarine (the powder of crushed lapis lazuli, imported from Afghanistan) and lead white was painted over a warm brown imprimatura. This technique creates an unusual depth, analogous to the depth of the sky itself.

            Natural ultramarine, the rarest and costliest pigment of the 17th century, was to become the most characteristic pigment on Vermeer's otherwise conventional palette. It has been hypothesized that owing to its elevated price, Vermeer's patron Pieter van Ruijven supplied it to the painter in order to guarantee the exceptional brilliance which only ultramarine can produce.

            2018救济金6元棋牌The colors in Vermeer's copy appear more saturated than those in Ficherelli's original.

            The golden crucifix

            Allegory of Faith (detail), Johannes Vermeer

            Allegory of Faith (detail)
            Johannes Vermeer
            c. 1670–1674
            Oil on canvas, 114.3 x 88.9 cm.
            2018救济金6元棋牌 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

            One of the most significant differences between Vermeer's copy and Ficherelli's original Saint Praxedis is the inclusion of a crucifix in the hands of the kneeling Saint. Arthur K. Wheelock Jr., who is the principal supporter of the painting's attribution, believes that it may reflect the young artist's new-found Catholic sympathies as it is generally believed that Vermeer had converted to the Catholic religion two years earlier upon his marriage to Catharina Bolnes.

            John Michael Montias, Vermeer's chief biographer, speculated that the Jesuits could have commissioned the young Delft artist to make a copy of the painting. "It was perhaps even they who instructed Vermeer to put a golden crucifix in the hands of the Saint: for a crucifix in 17th-centry Holland was the symbolic object, that above all objects, signaled its owner's adherence to the Roman Catholic faith." Montias also points out that the Saint Praxedis reflects Vermeer early concern with women, even in his early history paintings.

            An ebony wood crucifix was listed among the objects found in the groote zael (Great Hall) of Vermeer's home in the death inventory of the artist. The crucifix was an item found almost exclusively in Roman Catholic households and in hidden churches. Vermeer painted another crucifix in his late religious Allegory of Faith (see$$$$$).

            Scriptures relate that 23 Christians were discovered in the home of Saint Praxedis, they were martyred before her very eyes. She had the presence of mind to collect their blood with a sponge and placed it in a well, where she herself was later buried, marked by the disk in the Basilica's floor. The sponge of Saint Praxedis was preserved as a relic in the Roman church dedicated to the Saint.

            Who was Saint Praxedis?

            Saint Prudenita in a mosaic in the basilica of Santa Pudenziana in Rome

            Saint Prudenita in a mosaic in the
            basilica of Santa Pudenziana in Rome

            Saint Praxedis, or Prassede, was a Roman Christian of the second century who is chiefly noted for having cared for the bodies of those martyred for their faith.

            Her name is often associated with her sister, Saint Pudentiana, who may appear in the right background of Vermeer's painting walking near the martyrium, both followed by their father, Pudens, a disciple of Saint Paul.

            2018救济金6元棋牌 After many years of burying mutilated Christians, visiting the imprisoned and comforting suffering loved-ones, Praxedis died on July 21 of a disputed year, which is now her feast day of the Roman Catholic Church calendar. Saint Praxedis was reportedly buried with Pudentiana and Pudens in the catacombs of Priscilla, in via Salaria. However, while there does exist evidence for the life of Saint Pudens, there is no direct evidence for either Praxedis or Pudentiana. It has been suggested that there was no such person as Pudentiana, the name having originated as an adjective for the titulus of Pudens, which was mistaken for the name of a female by later generations.

            2018救济金6元棋牌 A church was built in Saint Praxedis' honor on the alleged site of her house, to which her relics were taken when it was rebuilt by Pope Paschal I as the present Santa Prassede (Rome) in c. 822.

            A beheaded man & a blood-filled sponge

            Saint Praxedis (detail), attributed to Johannes Vermeer

            In Vermeer's picture, a beheaded man lies to the right-hand side of Saint Praxedis who squeezes out a blood-filled sponge which she had gathers the martyr's blood. The figure of the martyr is painted with greater emphasis than in the original by Ficherelli.

            2018救济金6元棋牌The present day Basilica of Santa Prassede in Rome is said to contain the sponge of Saint Praxedis—not to be confused with the Holy Sponge of Christ—which she used to collect the blood of 23 Christian Martyrs who had been murdered before her very eyes. Saint Praxedis had placed the sponge in a well, where she herself was later buried. Her relics were collected by Pope Paschal and laid in an ancient sarcophagus that predates the relics' arrival.

            In Christianity, relics are the material remains of a deceased saint or martyr and objects closely associated with those remains. Relics can be entire skeletons, but more usually they consist of a part such as a bone, hair or tooth. A piece of clothing worn by the deceased saint or even an object that has come in contact with a relic is also considered a relic.

            As the lives of the martyrs became an important source of inspiration for Christians worshipers, their lives and relics became revered. The second-century Church Father Tertullian wrote that "the blood of martyrs is the seed of the Catholic Church," implying that the martyrs' willing sacrifice of their lives lead to the conversion of others. Many tales of miracles and other marvels were attributed to relics beginning in the early centuries of the church; many of these became especially popular during the Middle Ages.

            The monumental architecture of the background

            2018救济金6元棋牌The foreboding, monumental architecture in a generalized classical style rises above the scene setting the appropriate mood for the picture's somber narrative.

            The composition's perspective, indicated by the orthogonals of the buildings' receding cornices, creates a deep, hollow space which evidently was meant to dramatize the Saint's anguish. However, the vanishing point of the buildings does not coincide with that produced by the stone steps below. Evidently, the painter of the copy made no attempt to improve Ficherelli's less-than-firm grasp of one point linear perspective, considered at the time, a requisite for the knowledgeable history painter. In Ficherelli's original, the chiaroscural values of the architecture seems to be treated more delicately than the copy.

            The red paint of the saint's robe

            Red madder paint

            2018救济金6元棋牌The conventionally "antique" red dress appears to have been painted with a common glaze technique using the organic ruby red madder pigment (extracted from the madder plant), one of the most brilliant reds available to painters. Madder has been cultivated as a dyestuff since antiquity in central Asia and Egypt, where it was grown as early as 1500 B.C. Cloth dyed with madder root pigment was found in the tomb of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun and in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Corinth. In the middle ages, Charlemagne encouraged madder cultivation. It grew well in the sandy soils of the Netherlands and became an important part of the local economy.

            In order to obtain the maximum depth and vibrancy of color, painters had learned it was important to separate the problems of rendering form from color. For example, intensely-colored draperies were first modeled with relatively monochrome tones, usually raw umber (a dull but extremely versatile natural earth pigment) for the darks and lead white for the lights. In this phase, called underpainting, the artist could occupy himself exclusively with the distribution of light and dark. Once thoroughly dry, a somewhat syrupy mixture of naturally transparent paint mixed with drying oil was carefully "glazed" on top of the underpainting giving it a full vibrant color, especially in the lights, unattainable by direct mixture of paints. The shine-through effect is somewhat analogous to laying a sheet of colored acetate over a monochrome image. The painter of the copy seems to have used such a procedure.

            Although at first glance the copy appears to be an exact replica of Ficherelli's Saint Praxedis, there are divergences in both motif and style. The copy presents a crucifix in the hands of the saint while none is present in the original. The robust chiaroscural scheme of the copy is more clearly stated with lights and darks massed together in distinct areas to create a more dramatic effect of movement and light. Paint is applied more sparingly in Ficherelli's original and both modeling and brushwork appear more nuanced.

            While for Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. the more robust approach painting technique can be related to some passages of Vermeer's early Christ in the House of Martha and Mary and the red blouse of the seated nymph in Diana and her Companions, conservator Jørgen Wadum sees in the work traits which are uncharacteristic of any known painting by Vermeer.

            2018救济金6元棋牌In the red drapery Wadum notes curious "minute wavy strokes" of the brush of a seemingly "trembling hand" everywhere in the figure's tunic. Wadum conjectures that these very signs "reveal the artist's character" even though he admits the possibility of a conscious attempt to imitate Ficherelli's style could explain the particular stylistic trait. Wadum wrote, "as far as I can judge from photographic evidence, wavey brush-handling is not found in the Ficherelli of Ferrara on which the copy is based. He further notes that just such way brush work is present in three works by Ficherelli in the National Gallery of Dublin.

            The white sleeves of the saint's garments

            Saint Praxedis (detail), attributed to Johannes Vermeer

            2018救济金6元棋牌The sleeves of the saint were painted with deft flecks of white lead, the most common white pigment in European painting. Prepared artificially since the earliest historical times and used until the nineteenth century, this warm white is semi-opaque, has outstanding brushing qualities and mixes well with every color on the artist's palette. As the name lead white suggests, it is a by-product of lead, and whatever the form of manufacture used, the purity of the color depends on the purity of the lead.

            2018救济金6元棋牌In the Dutch and Old German manufacturing process, called the "stack" process, strips of lead were rolled up into spirals and placed in closed earthenware jars containing acetic acid. Afterward the pots were buried under tanner's bark or dung. The vinegar fumes corroded the metal and produced lead acetate, which in turn was converted to lead carbonate by the CO2 and water vapor released by the rotting manure over several months. The white lead was scraped off the lead coils, washed of and cleansed. White lead is extremely poisonous and must be handled with care.

            In anticipation of the sale of the Saint Praxedis in on June 8, 2014, the painting was examined by the conservator department of the Amsterdam Rijksmuseum. Particles of lead that were taken from samples of white paint used in Saint Praxedis were submitted for high precision lead isotope ratio analysis at the Free University, Amsterdam. The results established that it originated is north European and was consistent with mid-17th century painting in Holland. Two separate samples from the picture were then tested to confirm this result, proving that the picture was not painted in Italy as been held by the majority of art historians. Furthermore, a lead white sample taken from Vermeer's early Diana and her Companions was tested in the same manner. According to the conservator staff, the match with the Saint Praxedis lead white was so precise as to suggest that they came from as single batch of paint used for both pictures.

            The white sleeves of the saint's garments

            Saint Praxedis (detail), attributed to Johannes Vermeer

            2018救济金6元棋牌The sleeves of the saint were painted with deft flecks of white lead, the most common white pigment in European painting. Prepared artificially since the earliest historical times and used until the nineteenth century, this warm white is semi-opaque, has outstanding brushing qualities and mixes well with every color on the artist's palette. As the name lead white suggests, it is a by-product of lead, and whatever the form of manufacture used, the purity of the color depends on the purity of the lead.

            2018救济金6元棋牌In the Dutch and Old German manufacturing process, called the "stack" process, strips of lead were rolled up into spirals and placed in closed earthenware jars containing acetic acid. Afterward the pots were buried under tanner's bark or dung. The vinegar fumes corroded the metal and produced lead acetate, which in turn was converted to lead carbonate by the CO2 and water vapor released by the rotting manure over several months. The white lead was scraped off the lead coils, washed of and cleansed. White lead is extremely poisonous and must be handled with care.

            In anticipation of the sale of the Saint Praxedis in on June 8, 2014, the painting was examined by the conservator department of the Amsterdam Rijksmuseum. Particles of lead that were taken from samples of white paint used in Saint Praxedis were submitted for high precision lead isotope ratio analysis at the Free University, Amsterdam. The results established that it originated is north European and was consistent with mid-17th century painting in Holland. Two separate samples from the picture were then tested to confirm this result, proving that the picture was not painted in Italy as been held by the majority of art historians. Furthermore, a lead white sample taken from Vermeer's early Diana and her Companions was tested in the same manner. According to the conservator staff, the match with the Saint Praxedis2018救济金6元棋牌 lead white was so precise as to suggest that they came from as single batch of paint used for both pictures.

            The architectural forms: painting technique

            Saint Praxedis (detail), attributed to Johannes Vermeer

            The forms of the architectural features are painted with very thin paint, which allows the brownish underpainting to clearly be seen.

            The signature

            Signed and dated 1655 in the lower left, and it also carries an additional inscription in the lower right corner: "Meer N ... R ... o... o," which has been interpreted as "Meer N[aar] R[ip]o[s]o" (Vermeer after Riposo), the latter being Ficherelli's nickname.

            (Click here to access a complete study of Vermeer's signatures.)

            Dates

            1655
            Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. Vermeer: The Complete Works, New York, (1997)

            (Click here to access a complete study of the dates of Vermeer's paintings).

            Technical report

            The plain-weave canvas support has a regular weft of ten threads to centimeter. The painting has been relined.

            2018救济金6元棋牌The light brown ground consists primarily of lead white, iron oxides and calcium. A darker brown imprimatura layer exists under the sky, which is painted with natural ultramarine. The gown, lips and blood are painted with red lakes of lead white. The pigments in the yellow paint on the brim of the urn are lead white and yellow ochre. Many different textural effects have been created with the use of glazing, scumbling, impasto, and dry brushstrokes.

            2018救济金6元棋牌The painting is in excellent condition, with only a few small losses along the right side and bottom.

            * Johannes Vermeer2018救济金6元棋牌 (exh. cat., National Gallery of Art and Royal Cabinet of Paintings Mauritshuis - Washington and The Hague, 1995, edited by Arthur K. Wheelock Jr.)

            The painting in its frame

            (Click here to access all of Vermeer's paintings in their frames).

            St. Praxedis asstibuted to Johannes Vermeer with frame

            Provenance

            • Erna and Jacob Reder, New York, 1932 [Spencer Samuels & Company, New York, 1969–1987];
            • Barbara Piasecka Johnson Collection Foundation; 1987

            Exhibitions

            • New York 1969
              Florentine Art from American Collection
              Metropolitan Museum of Art
              44–45, no. 39 and ill. 22.
            • New York 1984
              Inaugural Exhibition
              Spencer A. Samuels Gallery
              no. 14
            • Warsaw 1990
              Opus Sacrum. Catalogue of the Exhibition from the collection of Barbara Piasecka Johnson
              Royal Castle
              11, 272–277, no. 48 and ill.
            • Cracow 1991
              Jan Vermeer van Delft (1632–1675). Saint Praxedis: An Exhibition of a Painting from the Collection of Barbara Piasecka Johnson. International Cultural Center
              Warsaw Royal Castle
              8–28, and several ills.
            • Washington D.C November 12, 1995–February 11, 1996
              Johannes Vermeer
              National Gallery of Art
              86–89, no.1 and ill.
            • The Hague March 1–June 2, 1996
              Johannes Vermeer
              Mauritshuis
              86–89, no.1 and ill.
            • Monaco 1998
              Johannes Vermeer (1632–1675: Sainte Praxède/Saint Praxedis)
              Musée de la Chapelle de la Visitation
            • Osaka April 4–July 2, 2000
              The Public and the Private in the Age of Vermeer
              Osaka Municipal Museum of Art
              174–177, no. 31 and ill.
            • Rome September 27, 2012–January 20, 2013
              Vermeer: Il secolo d'oro dell'arte olandese
              Scuderie del Quirinale
              200, no. 45a and ill.
            • Tokyo March 17, 2015
              Saint Praxedis
              National Museum of Western Art

            (Click here to access a complete, sortable list of the exhibitions of Vermeer's paintings).

            The painting in scale

            (Click here to access all of Vermeer's paintings in scale).

            St. Praxedis asstibuted to Johannes Vermeer in scale
            1655
            Vermeer's life

            Dec. 14, "Sr. Johannes Reijnijersz. Vermeer master painter," and his wife "Juffr. Catharina Bolnes" appear before the notary Rota to guarantee a debt of 250 guilders that the artist's father had contracted. Both Vermeer and his wife sign the document. The appearance of the stylish "Sr." on the document is a secure sign of the artist's rise in social status.

            Dutch painting

            c. 1656 Jacob van Ruisdael moves to Amsterdam.

            Rembrandt paints Woman Bathing in a Stream and the Polish Rider.

            Pieter de Hooch2018救济金6元棋牌, who directly influences Vermeer, joins the guild of Saint Luke in Delft, two years after he had arrived from Haarlem. He will remain in Delft and produce his finest works until 1660.

            c. 1658 Miendert Hobbema2018救济金6元棋牌 becomes an apprentice in Jacob van Ruisdael's Amsterdam studio. In the exercise of his craft Hobbema was patient beyond all conception. It is doubtful whether any one ever so completely mastered as he did the still life of woods and hedges, or mills and pools. Nor can we believe that he obtained this mastery otherwise than by constantly dwelling in the same neighbourhood, say in Guelders or on the Dutch Westphalian border, where day after day he might study the branching and foliage of trees and underwood embowering cottages and mills, under every variety of light, in every shade of transparency, in all changes produced by the seasons.

            European painting & architecture

            Luca Giordano2018救济金6元棋牌 develops a rich baroque vein deriving in particular from Rubens. He was nicknamed "Luca Fa Presto" (Luke work quickly) because of his prodigious speed of execution and huge output. He began in the circle of Ribera, but his style became much more colorful under the influence of such great decorative painters as Veronese, whose works he saw on his extensive travels. Indeed, he absorbed a host of influences and was said to be able to imitate other artists' styles with ease. His work was varied also in subject-matter, although he was primarily a religious and mythological painter. Soon after the death of Charles in 1700, Giordano, now wealthy, returned to Naples. He spent large sums in acts of munificence, and was particularly liberal to his poorer brother artists. One of his maxims was that the good painter is the one whom the public like, and that the public are attracted more by colour than by design. Giordano has been criticized as being a prolific trader of all styles, and master of none. He has been viewed as a proto-Tiepolo, reanimating that grand manner of Cortona in a style that would brighten with Tiepolo.

            c. 1655 Murillo paints genre scenes in Seville, where, from 1658 to 1660, he was involved in the founding of the Academy of Art, sharing its direction, in 1660, with the architect, Francisco Herrera el Mozo. This was his period of greatest activity, and he received numerous important commissions, among them the altar piece for the Augustinian monastery, the paintings for Santa María la Blanca (completed in 1665), and others.

            Music Aug 13, Johann Christoph Denner, inventor of the clarinet, was born.
            Literature
            Science & philosophy

            Blaise Pascal: Lettres provinciales2018救济金6元棋牌, against Jesuits

            Mar 25, Christiaan Huygens discovered Titan, Saturn's largest satellite. Huygens was a great figure in the fields of research into mathematical physics, astronomy and optics, and among the founders of mechanics and optical physics. He made astronomical observations about the planets, of the nebula of Orion and of the Moon, all reported in Systema Saturnium.

            Hooke publishes the Micrographia.

            History

            Pope Innocent X dies; Fabio Chigi becomes Pope Alexander VII.

            Spinoza2018救济金6元棋牌 excommunicated

            Apr 26, Dutch West Indies Co. denied Peter Stuyvesant's desire to exclude Jews from New Amsterdam.

            Sep 26, Peter Stuyvesant recaptured Dutch Ft. Casimir from Swedish in Delaware.

            The first slave auction was held in New Amsterdam (later NYC).

            French society uses a clean plate for each new dish2018救济金6元棋牌 but Englishmen continue to dine off trenchers—wooden platters that give hearty eaters the name "trenchermen."

            Rum from Jamaica2018救济金6元棋牌 is introduced into the Royal Navy to supplement beer, which goes sour after a few weeks at sea.

            1656
            vermeer's life & art

            In Dec. Vermeer pays the remaining sum (1.5 guilders) of the master's fee in the Guild of Saint Luke that he was unable to pay in 1653.

            Vermeer signs one of his first known paintings, The Procuress. The young artist seems to still be dependent on well established pictorial models and has not yet adverted the influence of the newer interior genre scenes of his contemporaries. This type of Caravaggesque scene was to be found in the collections of local connoisseurs.

            By 1656 Maria Thin, Vermeer's mother-in-law had already advanced 300 guilders, a considerable sum, the Catharina and Johannes.

            Dutch painting

            Rembrandt declared bankrupt; his possessions are put up for sale.

            The immensely popular landscape painter Jan van Goyen (b. 1596), dies.

            Gerrit van Honthorst 2018救济金6元棋牌(b. in Utrecht 1590) dies.

            European painting & architecture

            Academy of Painting in Rome founded.

            Bernini: Piazza of Saint Peter's, Rome

            Diego Velázquez paints Las Meninas2018救济金6元棋牌, family of Philip IV

            Music Opening of first London opera house.
            Literature
            Science & philosophy

            Oct 29, Edmund Halley, astronomer (Halley's Comet), was born. [see Nov 8]

            Dec 14, Artificial pearls2018救济金6元棋牌 are first manufactured by M. Jacquin in Paris. They were made of gypsum pellets covered with fish scales.

            Dutch mathematician Johan van Waveren Hudde2018救济金6元棋牌, 28, anticipates the power-series for ln (1 + x) and the following year will do pioneering work on the use of space coordinates. Hudde promotes Cartesian geometry and philosophy in Holland; his discoveries (they will be called Hudde's rules) will presage the use of algorithms to solve problems of calculus.

            History

            Jan 8, Oldest surviving commercial newspaper began in Haarlem, Netherlands.

            Dutch forces take the Sinhalese port of Colombo from the Portuguese.

            Dutch East India Company shares plummet on the Amsterdam Exchange and many investors are ruined. Among them is painter Rembrandt van Rijn, now 50, who is declared bankrupt and whose possessions are put up for sale.

            The Dutch in Ceylon make cinnamon a state monopoly2018救济金6元棋牌 but will not have complete control of the island's cinnamon until 1658. When prices fall too low, the Dutch will burn great quantities of the bark, and they will destroy groves of clove and nutmeg trees in the Moluccas, creating artificial scarcities that will force prices up, enriching the Dutch East India Company.

            Who was Saint Praxedis?

            Mosiacs of St. Praxedis, Basillica of St. Praxedsi, ROme

            According to legend, Saint Praxedis was a 2nd-century daughter of a disciple of St Paul living in Rome, and sister of Saint Pudentiana. When the Emperor Marcus Antoninus was hunting down Christians, Saint Praxedis sought them out to relieve them with money, care and comfort. Some she hid in her house, others she encouraged to keep firm in the faith. She likewise cared for the severed bodies of those martyred for their faith.

            Saint Praxedis was at first venerated as a martyr in connection with the Ecclesia Pudentiana, but afterwards a separate church was built in her honor, on the alleged site of her house, to which, when it was rebuilt by Pope Saint Paschal I (the present Santa Prassede), her relics were taken.

            By the late 16th century she was especially revered by the Jesuits, an order which lived next door to Vermeer's mother-in-law, Maria Thins, along the Oude Langendijk in Delft.

            In the two paintings by Vermeer and Ficherelli, Saint Praxedis is shown kneeling in front of an ornate twin-handed jug into which she is squeezing a sponge soaked full with blood of a decapitated martyr.

            Her effigy appears on a mosaic of the Catholic Church of Saint Praxedis in Rome (see$$$$$).

            Who was Felice Ficherelli?

            The Death of Cleopatra, Felice Ficherelli

            The Death of Cleopatra
            Felice Ficherelli
            1650s
            Oil on canvas, 71 x 78 cm.
            2018救济金6元棋牌 National Gallery of Slovenia, Ljubljana

            The Saint Praxedis2018救济金6元棋牌 is indisputably a copy of a painting by Felice Ficherelli, the later which is presently in a private collection in Ferarra, Italy.

            Felice Ficherelli (1605–1660) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active mainly in Tuscany. In contrast with his nickname, il Riposo2018救济金6元棋牌 (the restful), derived from his peaceful nature, his most original works were easel paintings often of cruel and violent subjects, which he interpreted with a morbid sensuality and ambiguous tenderness. He specialized in martyrdom and famous murders of the past.

            Ficherelli was brought to Florence when very young by the influential collector Conte Alberto Bardi, who arranged for him to study with Jacopo da Empoli and to copy works by Andrea del Sarto. Ficherelli's clear compositions and luminous drapery, which remain evident throughout his career, reflect his studies.

            How Vermeer might have come across the Saint Praxedis, which has never left Italy and is now in a private collection in Ferrara, remains a mystery.

            The Rape of Lucretia, Felice Ficherelli

            The Rape of Lucretia
            Felice Ficherelli
            Late 1630s
            Oil on tinned copper, 24.5 x 29.9 cm.
            Wallace Collection, London

            Why would Vermeer have copied Ficherelli's Saint Praxedis?

            A Young Boy Copying a Painting, Wallerant Vaillant

            A Young Boy Copying a Painting
            After Wallerant Vaillant
            1660
            oil on canvas, 127 x 99.5 cm.
            National Gallery, London

            2018救济金6元棋牌The present painting is a copy of a painting by the Italian painter Felice Ficherelli. By some art historians presumably by the young Vermeer.

            2018救济金6元棋牌Although copying the works of other painters is disdained by mainstream art educational systems today, in Vermeer's age people were far more opened to modeling themselves on great predecessors, who they took for their yardsticks. Apprentices drew from casts of classical sculptures, copied drawings and paintings of their own teachers as well as those of the venerated Masters of the past. In addition, copying was correlated with the broader concept of emulation which was for centuries the pilaster of pictorial tradition and progress. It was then held to be impossible to rival and surpass the Masters of the past until one had acquired the same technical tools to successfully compete. Thus, for a painter in his early years, even the most talented, to copy a work of another was hardly a sign of weakness. Copying also presented a financial opportunity for many painters since collectors were not always able to acquire the great originals of the past.

            Although it is not easy to understand why Vermeer would have made a replica of a relatively obscure Italian painting, the subject of this Catholic Saint may have appealed to the young painter who was just married into a staunch Catholic family and likely converted thereafter. Other writers have envisioned Vermeer rendering homage to the enormous loss of life, including one of Delft's most promising painters Carel Fabritius, caused only a few years earlier by the infamous explosion of the Delft powder magazine.

            A painting with two signatures

            This painting, a close copy of a painting by the Florentine master Felice Ficherelli curiously, displays two signatures. The fist to be noticed was "Meer 1655" in the lower left. It also carries an additional inscription which had escaped the experts' eyes for some time in the lower right corner: Meer N ... R ... o... o, which has been interpreted as Meer N[aar] R[ip]o[s]o (Vermeer after Riposo), the latter being Ficherelli's nickname.

            2018救济金6元棋牌 After consulting the results of laboratory examination, Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. claimed that both "signatures and the date are integral to the paint surface" but is at a loss as to why the work bears two signatures.

            Conservator Jørgen Wadum, on the other hand, states that the signature to the lower left is clearly not part of the original paint layer. He argues that the paint layer directly beneath it is visibly abraded (which means it has undergone some wear and tear) while the signature above seems relatively fresh and clear. Wadum remarks that the second signature to the lower right "is so rudimentary that any interpretation would be factitous." Furthermore, two signatures on the same painting would be a rarity for a 17th-century copy.

            Where could Vermeer have seen the original Saint Praxedis by Ficherelli?

            The copy of Ficherelli's Saint Praxedis is most debated painting in regards to its authenticity. Since it is a very faithful copy of an extant painting, which almost certainly never left the country, various Vermeer scholars believe this fact alone is sufficient to disqualify it from Vermeer's oeuvre.

            2018救济金6元棋牌However, there exist various hypotheses that, while not proving Vermeer make the copy himself, show that it is not out of the question. First of all, Vermeer could have made his copy from another copy which had somehow reached the Netherlands. Copies of Italian paintings were highly regarded in the Netherlands and were a part of an active market. In Delft, various paintings of Italian masters where known to have been part of private collections. When John Michael Montias, Vermeer's biographer, made a scrupulous examination of Delft archival records, only five turned up, of which only three were probably copies. It is far likelier that originals and copies by Italian masters could be found in Amsterdam.

            One Amsterdam art dealer, Johannes de Renialme, owned ten. Curiously, De Renialme also had in his collection a now-lost Grave Visitation by Vermeer, presumably an early work. De Renialme was also in contact with Vermeer through his family's notary, Willem de Langue. The fact that Vermeer was summoned to The Hague to judge the authenticity of a group of disputed "Italian masterpieces" his knowledge of Italian painting must have circulated among artists and art lovers.

            A second, but less convincing explanation regards Vermeer's presumed visit to Italy. Another Dutch painter called Johannes Vermeer is documented to have been in Italy in the 1650s, but scholars firmly believe that it was Johannes Vermeer of Utrecht, who, coincidentally, worked in the Italian manner.

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